To date, however, no randomized comparator studies for prophylaxi

To date, however, no randomized comparator studies for prophylaxis with bypassing agents have been carried out and, therefore, it is difficult to substantiate these hypothesized points. To date, effectiveness and safety of prophylaxis with rFVIIa has been described in only a small number of case reports, retrospective studies and a small randomized clinical trial (as discussed). Systematically, obtaining more extensive data on the past

and current use of rFVIIa for prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors would therefore prove useful to clinicians. PROPACT, the Retrospective Prophylaxis Patient Case CollecTion, aims to evaluate the frequency and pattern of bleeding episodes in patients receiving prophylactic treatment with rFVIIa. In addition, the study will assess the selection of patients for prophylaxis, the dose and dosing intervals used, and the safety of rFVIIa in prophylaxis. This international study selleck compound library includes approximately 40 centres in 13 countries and aims to include 50–100 patients. Data are expected to be available in early 2010 (Data on file, Novo Nordisk, 2009). A further retrospective study of the use of rFVIIa as secondary prophylaxis in haemophilic patients

with inhibitors is currently underway in France. This analysis aims to evaluate the various rFVIIa secondary prophylaxis dosing regimens used in 14 French treatment centres and will include 15 patients. The study will also determine the profile of patients selected for prophylaxis and compare the effects of prophylaxis check details with on-demand therapy during the 6 months pre- and post-prophylaxis. Results from this analysis will be incorporated into the PROPACT database. An additional prospective study learn more addressing the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa has been proposed. The EuropeaN initiative to prevent JOInt damage in Haemophilia A children with inhibitors who are candidates for ITI (ENJOIH®) study will investigate prophylactic rFVIIa treatment

compared with on-demand therapy. Analyses include reducing the frequency of joint bleeds and the development of joint damage (including synovitis), as measured by the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS), in children with haemophilia A and high-responding inhibitors. This study is ready to start in November 2009. This is a crossover study in which patients will be treated with 6 months of on-demand FEIBA® and 6 months of FEIBA® prophylaxis (85 U kg−1± 15% on 3 non-consecutive days weekly) with a 3-month wash-out period between arms. Subjects will be randomly assigned as to sequence of treatment with half receiving the on-demand treatment first, followed by prophylaxis and the other half receiving prophylaxis treatment first, followed by the on-demand treatment period. The primary endpoint is to compare the number of bleeding events in the on-demand and prophylaxis arms. This study is closed and data currently is in examination.

To date, however, no randomized comparator studies for prophylaxi

To date, however, no randomized comparator studies for prophylaxis with bypassing agents have been carried out and, therefore, it is difficult to substantiate these hypothesized points. To date, effectiveness and safety of prophylaxis with rFVIIa has been described in only a small number of case reports, retrospective studies and a small randomized clinical trial (as discussed). Systematically, obtaining more extensive data on the past

and current use of rFVIIa for prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors would therefore prove useful to clinicians. PROPACT, the Retrospective Prophylaxis Patient Case CollecTion, aims to evaluate the frequency and pattern of bleeding episodes in patients receiving prophylactic treatment with rFVIIa. In addition, the study will assess the selection of patients for prophylaxis, the dose and dosing intervals used, and the safety of rFVIIa in prophylaxis. This international study INCB024360 manufacturer includes approximately 40 centres in 13 countries and aims to include 50–100 patients. Data are expected to be available in early 2010 (Data on file, Novo Nordisk, 2009). A further retrospective study of the use of rFVIIa as secondary prophylaxis in haemophilic patients

with inhibitors is currently underway in France. This analysis aims to evaluate the various rFVIIa secondary prophylaxis dosing regimens used in 14 French treatment centres and will include 15 patients. The study will also determine the profile of patients selected for prophylaxis and compare the effects of prophylaxis MG-132 manufacturer with on-demand therapy during the 6 months pre- and post-prophylaxis. Results from this analysis will be incorporated into the PROPACT database. An additional prospective study selleck screening library addressing the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa has been proposed. The EuropeaN initiative to prevent JOInt damage in Haemophilia A children with inhibitors who are candidates for ITI (ENJOIH®) study will investigate prophylactic rFVIIa treatment

compared with on-demand therapy. Analyses include reducing the frequency of joint bleeds and the development of joint damage (including synovitis), as measured by the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS), in children with haemophilia A and high-responding inhibitors. This study is ready to start in November 2009. This is a crossover study in which patients will be treated with 6 months of on-demand FEIBA® and 6 months of FEIBA® prophylaxis (85 U kg−1± 15% on 3 non-consecutive days weekly) with a 3-month wash-out period between arms. Subjects will be randomly assigned as to sequence of treatment with half receiving the on-demand treatment first, followed by prophylaxis and the other half receiving prophylaxis treatment first, followed by the on-demand treatment period. The primary endpoint is to compare the number of bleeding events in the on-demand and prophylaxis arms. This study is closed and data currently is in examination.

The family of serotonin receptors is subdivided into seven subgro

The family of serotonin receptors is subdivided into seven subgroups. These receptors

have been grouped according to their genetic and structural similarities and also according to the intracellular signaling pathways associated with each receptor. Serotonin regulates hepatic function and response to injury, blood flow, and proliferation of hepatocyte.14 In further studies, we could not detect any negative impact of serotonin in a model of ischemia/reperfusion injury. In contrast, we identified a new role for serotonin in tissue repair following ischemic injury.15 We therefore hypothesize that serotonin rescues liver regeneration after implantation of a small graft without enhancing the inherent ischemic damage, and thereby prevents SFS syndrome. 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine; this website 5-HT2B, serotonin receptor-2B; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; DOI, α-methyl-5-HT; IL-6, interleukin-6; OLT, orthotopic liver transplantation; PCNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PTX, pentoxifylline; SEC, sinusoidal endothelial cell; SFS, small-for-size; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α. Male inbred C57BL/6 mice were purchased from Harlan, Netherlands, IL-6−/−

mice with C57BL/6 background were obtained from Enzalutamide Jackson Laboratory and used as syngeneic transplant donors and recipients. Animals were kept in accordance with the guidelines of the University of Zurich Animal Care Committee. The protocol of the study was approved by the Cantonal Veterinary office of Zurich. All mice were kept in a temperature-controlled environment

with a 12-hour light/dark cycle and with free access to food and tap water. We performed 30% partial OLTs in mice using techniques described previously.10 Some mice received a 25% OLT graft consisting of the right liver lobe. The recipient mice were divided into two groups: (1) α-methyl-5-HT (DOI, an agonist of the serotonin receptor and (2) a control group. DOI (1 mg/kg dissolved in saline) was given intravenously immediately following reperfusion of the partial selleck screening library liver graft. Subsequently, recipients were injected subcutaneously twice a day for 2 days postoperatively. In control recipients, the same amount of vehicle solution was administered. Recipients were sacrificed at 1 hour, 3 hours, 2 days, or 7 days postoperatively. Hepatic regeneration, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in serum, transcript levels of 5-HT2 receptors, IL-6, TNF-α in liver grafts, histology, scanning electron microscopy, and intravital microscopy were evaluated. In separate series of experiments, the recipient survival rates of 7 days after transplantation were tested. Some animals were treated with an antagonist of the 5-HT2B receptor: SB206553 (3 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously into the donor and recipient before surgery and twice a day for 2 days after transplantation. Tissues were immersion-fixed in 4% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin wax, then sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin.

An increase in the consumption of dietary fat and protein

An increase in the consumption of dietary fat and protein

amongst Asian populations is well documented.86–89 Pictilisib chemical structure The role of diet in the causation of GERD has been widely discussed. In a cross sectional survey, El-Serag et al. reported an association between high dietary fat and increased risk of reflux disease.90 Fox et al. showed a high fat and energy rich diet increased the severity and frequency of reflux symptoms.91 In an older study from China, Pan et al. implicated eating “greasy and oily” foods.35 However, other studies have not found an association with fat intake.92 Dietary studies remain difficult to perform in terms of measurement of food intake. Smoking and alcohol consumption are well recognized risk factors for erosive esophagitis and GERD 22,28,29,31. Consumption of carbonated drinks have been shown previously to be associated with reflux symptoms, but a recent systematic review showed no correlation

with GERD.93 Lifestyle changes are difficult to measure. Zheng et al. showed that increased physical activity at work was a risk factor for GERD, while, conversely, recreational physical activity was protective.94 Perhaps the most important factor in the emergence of GERD in Asia has been the marked increase in prevalence of obesity and selleck inhibitor metabolic syndrome in the region.95 Obesity has indeed become a major problem in Asians. Recent surveys from China, have shown that overweight and obesity affect a significant proportion of the population.96–98 A recent report from India has also reported a marked increase in BMI in that population.99 Obesity and its associated diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver, click here have been reported to be on the increase in the Asia-Pacific region.100–102 In a meta-analysis of published studies, Hampel and colleagues have shown that

obesity is associated with increased reflux symptoms, erosive esophagitis and esophageal adenocarcinoma.103 Many studies from Asia correlating obesity,104,105 metabolic syndrome106–110 and reflux disease have now been published. In particular the association between visceral adiposity and central obesity has been consistently significant.106,111–113 The “epidemic” of obesity in Asia portends a similar exponential increase in obesity related disease such as GERD. Amongst the mechanism of disease causation, increased intra-abdominal pressure, impaired gastric emptying, decreased lower esophageal sphincter tone and an increase in the number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations have been demonstrated in obese subjects.114–118 In a study employing sophisticated manometry techniques, Pandolfino and colleagues showed an increase in intragastric pressure as well as in gastro-esophageal pressure gradients in obese individuals.119 Genetic predisposition to GERD amongst different ethnic groups would mean that such an increase would be more prominent amongst certain racial groups.

1 Moreover, reactivation of HBV infection can occur in

HB

1 Moreover, reactivation of HBV infection can occur in

HBsAg-negative patients after immunosuppression or chemotherapy.2,3 These findings suggest that recovery from HBV infection may not always result in complete virus elimination. In some circumstances, long-lasting persistence of HBV genomes can be found at very low levels, the so-called form of occult HBV infection. The geographic differences in occult hepatitis B incidence are most likely related to the endemicity of HBV infection.4 In addition, the population investigated is very important; the prevalence of occult HBV infection LDK378 supplier is more common in patients with chronic liver disease and less common among healthy blood or organ donors. As HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share many of the same transmission learn more routes, the high prevalence of occult HBV infection reported in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), ranging from 3% to 95%, is not surprising. It is generally accepted that superinfection with HCV might directly contribute to a certain proportion of cases with occult hepatitis B.5 In cases of HBV carriers with HCV superinfection, HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg clearance have been reported. ‘In vitro’ studies have also revealed that HCV is capable of suppressing HBV replication, and this inhibitory effect is mediated by HCV core protein.6,7 One study found that the

inhibitory effect of HCV was genotype-dependent,7 being more pronounced in genotype

1 HCV infections. However, more research is needed before reaching a firm conclusion on this aspect. In this issue of Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, a study from Taiwan by Chen et al.8 investigated the phenomenon of occult HBV infection in 126 consecutive CHC patients receiving therapy with peginterferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin. The prevalence of occult HBV infection in CHC patients was 4.8% when a branch chain DNA (bDNA) assay with a lower detection limit around 400 IU/mL was applied to measure serum HBV DNA. There were no differences in liver histology and serological profiles of HBV between HCV mono-infected and occult HBV/HCV groups. selleckchem After therapy, the biochemical and virological responses were comparable between these two groups and sustained undetectable HBV DNA was noted in all patients with occult HBV. For the clinician, several important issues need to be discussed in more detail: (i) What is seropositive/seronegative occult HBV infection and how is it diagnosed? (ii) What effect does occult HBV have on CHC disease progression and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)? (iii) Does occult HBV infection affect antiviral response for CHC patients? (iv) Is it necessary to routinely check HBV DNA by a PCR-based assay in CHC patients? If not, when should this be considered? Occult HBV infection can be classified as being seropositive or seronegative.

43 The sulfonamide then binds covalently to key cysteine groups o

43 The sulfonamide then binds covalently to key cysteine groups on the extracellular domain of the proton pump to cause prolonged inhibition of the gastric acid secretion. Acid secretion is generally only restored through the recruitment of pumps that were previously at rest in the cytosol or the synthesis of new pumps (H+K+-exchanging ATPAse), which have a synthetic half life of approximately 50 h.44 The proton pump inhibitors all have similar short plasma half lives of elimination at

approximately 1 h and since they rapidly concentrate in the acidic secretory canaliculus find more are unlikely to accumulate elsewhere in the body.45–47 All of the PPIs are highly protein bound (> 95%) and rapidly metabolized by the liver with negligible renal clearance.48 Most PPIs are metabolized predominantly through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme systems, more specifically through CYP2C19. The majority of omeprazole metabolism

occurs through his pathway, while esomeprazole >  pantoprazole > lansoprazole are less metabolized via this pathway. Rabeprazole is the PPI least metabolized via CYP2C19; the majority of its metabolism occurs via a non-enzymatic pathway.28 Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 expression account for the main inter-individual differences in PPI metabolism. However, the evidence for clinically significant sequelae from such interactions HTS assay as a result of inhibition of CYP450 has been conflicting.28,49,50 Study of the pharmaco-dynamics of clopidogrel and PPI demonstrates that they are very rapidly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system and the authors suggest the chance of interaction would appear to be minimized. This review of the evidence regarding the apparent PPI and clopidogrel interaction is instructive from a number of perspectives. First, it is clear that in patients on clopidogrel and/or aspirin, bleeding results in significantly worse outcomes

Second, co-prescription of a PPI reduces bleeding and is incorporated into the current American Heart Association and American see more College of Gastroenterology guidelines, which recommend the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy who are at high risk of bleeding.9 Third, examination of the pharmaco-kinetics and -dynamics of clopidogrel and PPIs, suggest that the opportunity for interaction between the two agents is limited, given the rapid concentration of the PPIs (weak bases) in the acidic secretory canaliculus and rapid metabolism of both PPIs and clopidogrel into their respective metabolites. Finally the available clinical evidence for the clopidogrel and PPI interaction is open to serious criticism and certainly not unequivocal.

In their analysis of A2ALL registry data, the authors compare out

In their analysis of A2ALL registry data, the authors compare outcomes for patients listed for liver transplantation who had a potential donor evaluated for them. Those who underwent an LDLT were compared with those who underwent a deceased

donor liver transplant (DDLT) or remained on the wait list. These analyses were performed for patients with Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) <15 or ≥15, for patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, the authors report a clear survival benefit of LDLT Sirtuin inhibitor in both low and high MELD patients without HCC when compared to DDLT or remaining on the wait list. For patients with HCC, a survival benefit of LDLT could only be demonstrated for those with MELD of ≥15 when compared to DDLT. For patients with HCC and MELD <15, LDLT and DDLT had similar survival outcomes, which is not surprising given they had similar waiting times at 2.5 months and 3 months, respectively, likely due to the allocation policy for patients with HCC. The finding of a clear survival benefit for non-HCC patients with a MELD <15 who underwent LDLT is somewhat unexpected. A previous

report by learn more Merion et al.2 demonstrated no survival benefit for deceased donor transplant recipients with a MELD <15 compared to waiting on the list for up to 2 years. This seminal report resulted in a major allocation policy change for patients with MELD <15, and led many in the liver transplant community to conclude that there would be no benefit to transplant for patients with a MELD <15. Importantly, a subsequent report did a show survival benefit down to MELD of 12 when using donors with a low donor risk index (DRI).3 Thus, further analysis of LDLT outcomes across the spectrum of low MELD patients such as between 12-15 and 8-11 may provide additional granularity to the current findings. Because the authors included only patients for whom an available living donor was evaluated, this may reduce potential bias

that may come from a subtle (and immeasurable) survival benefit for patients with enough social support and/or healthy family members that they have a potential living donor compared to selleck compound those wait-listed candidates who have no potential donors. They also controlled for the presence of HCC, hepatitis C virus (HCV), MELD, age, and presence of cholestatic liver disease. Additionally, the authors analyzed the quality of the deceased donor organs in DDLT candidates to ensure that recipients of DDLT in the A2ALL cohort were not getting highly inferior deceased donor organs, which could account for the benefit of LDLT. They compared the DRI of patients receiving deceased donor transplants for both those in the A2ALL study as well as those patients at the participating centers who were not in the study and found it was similar.

[5-7] Considering the antiviral potency and resistance profile, E

[5-7] Considering the antiviral potency and resistance profile, ETV and TDF are the preferred first-line agents to treat CHB patients.[5-7] In Taiwan, ADV is only approved as a rescue agent in combination with ETV, LVD,

or LdT for the treatment of nucleoside-resistant HBV strains.[9] The efficacy of approved NAs has been demonstrated in their respective pivotal trials.[10-15] However, pivotal trials generally evaluate 1-year (i.e. 48 weeks) Rapamycin research buy or extended 2-year efficacy and safety end-points, and the results may not be extrapolated to a wider spectrum of patients in clinical practice, the majority of whom need prolonged treatment. Hence, postmarketing observational studies are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of these agents in a real-world setting. In the Asia Pacific region including Taiwan, NAs with less potency and low genetic barrier are commonly used as initial antiviral agents because of medical resource constraints.

Whether the initial choice of antiviral treatments affects sustained virological suppression, drug resistance and treatment modification in patients with prolonged NA treatment remain largely unclear and deserves further studies. In Taiwan, the Bureau of National Health Insurance reimburses NA treatment for up to 3 years in treatment-naïve CHB patients Nutlin3a if there is no virological evidence of drug resistance during the treatment period. This reimbursement policy prompted us to conduct a multicenter observational study to investigate the treatment efficacy, treatment modification, and adherence in CHB patients receiving 3-year NA treatment. This multicenter observational study was learn more conducted in outpatient departments of 33 randomly selected regional hospitals or medical centers in Taiwan. From August 2008 to July 2009, we identified 600 NA-naïve patients who were at least 16 years of age and who had a diagnosis of compensated CHB. All patients received a 3-year NA treatment and had a regular follow-up; the selection of NA was according to the physicians’ discretion. Patients who received interferon or oral NA or a combination

treatment of interferon plus oral NA treatment, those with coinfection of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis delta virus, or human immunodeficiency virus, and those who participated in other clinical studies or who had decompensated liver disease were excluded. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient at enrollment. The study protocol and protocol amendment were approved by the Institutional Review Board/Independent Ethics Committee of each participating hospital or center. Baseline data of patients were retrieved from the medical records and included age, gender, medical history, HBV DNA level (IU/mL), hepatitis B surface antigen/anti-HBs and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)/anti-HBe, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total bilirubin and creatinine, and initial NA treatment.

[5-7] Considering the antiviral potency and resistance profile, E

[5-7] Considering the antiviral potency and resistance profile, ETV and TDF are the preferred first-line agents to treat CHB patients.[5-7] In Taiwan, ADV is only approved as a rescue agent in combination with ETV, LVD,

or LdT for the treatment of nucleoside-resistant HBV strains.[9] The efficacy of approved NAs has been demonstrated in their respective pivotal trials.[10-15] However, pivotal trials generally evaluate 1-year (i.e. 48 weeks) MK-2206 purchase or extended 2-year efficacy and safety end-points, and the results may not be extrapolated to a wider spectrum of patients in clinical practice, the majority of whom need prolonged treatment. Hence, postmarketing observational studies are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of these agents in a real-world setting. In the Asia Pacific region including Taiwan, NAs with less potency and low genetic barrier are commonly used as initial antiviral agents because of medical resource constraints.

Whether the initial choice of antiviral treatments affects sustained virological suppression, drug resistance and treatment modification in patients with prolonged NA treatment remain largely unclear and deserves further studies. In Taiwan, the Bureau of National Health Insurance reimburses NA treatment for up to 3 years in treatment-naïve CHB patients AZD8055 chemical structure if there is no virological evidence of drug resistance during the treatment period. This reimbursement policy prompted us to conduct a multicenter observational study to investigate the treatment efficacy, treatment modification, and adherence in CHB patients receiving 3-year NA treatment. This multicenter observational study was learn more conducted in outpatient departments of 33 randomly selected regional hospitals or medical centers in Taiwan. From August 2008 to July 2009, we identified 600 NA-naïve patients who were at least 16 years of age and who had a diagnosis of compensated CHB. All patients received a 3-year NA treatment and had a regular follow-up; the selection of NA was according to the physicians’ discretion. Patients who received interferon or oral NA or a combination

treatment of interferon plus oral NA treatment, those with coinfection of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis delta virus, or human immunodeficiency virus, and those who participated in other clinical studies or who had decompensated liver disease were excluded. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient at enrollment. The study protocol and protocol amendment were approved by the Institutional Review Board/Independent Ethics Committee of each participating hospital or center. Baseline data of patients were retrieved from the medical records and included age, gender, medical history, HBV DNA level (IU/mL), hepatitis B surface antigen/anti-HBs and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)/anti-HBe, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total bilirubin and creatinine, and initial NA treatment.

κ scores reflecting agreement between the four sets of NASH patho

κ scores reflecting agreement between the four sets of NASH pathologic criteria are summarized in Table 3. Specifically, the diagnoses of NASH by the original criteria for NAFLD

subtypes and the diagnoses of BMS-907351 order NASH by the current study’s criteria were in almost perfect agreement κ = 0.896 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.838-0.953]. The agreement of NASH diagnoses by the original criteria for NAFLD subtypes and by the current study’s NASH protocol with NASH diagnoses by NAS ≥ 5 (the threshold for diagnosing NASH) was moderate [κ = 0.470 (95% CI = 0.367-0.574) and κ = 0.511 (95% CI = 0.409-0.613), respectively]. However, the agreement of the Brunt criteria (any grade of NASH) with the current study’s NASH criteria [κ = 0.365 (95% CI = 0.257-0.474] and with the original criteria for NAFLD subtypes [κ = 0.441 (95% CI = 0.329-0.552)] was fair to moderate, and its agreement with NAS ≥ 5 was relatively poor [κ = 0.178 (95% CI = 0.117-0.240)].

Our data also show that using NAS ≥ 5 for establishing the diagnosis of NASH missed 40% to 45% of the NASH patients diagnosed by the current study’s NASH criteria and by the original criteria for NAFLD subtypes. In fact, only 72 of 131 patients diagnosed with NASH by the original criteria for NAFLD subtypes and 75 of 123 Selleckchem Z-VAD-FMK patients diagnosed by the current study’s NASH criteria were also diagnosed with NASH by an NAS value of 5 or higher. On the other hand, in comparison with the current study’s NASH criteria and the original click here criteria for NAFLD subtypes, another 30% of NAFLD patients were considered to have NASH according to the Brunt criteria. In fact, all these patients were diagnosed to have grade 1 NASH by the Brunt criteria. In order to test whether a better agreement could be achieved with a different NAS threshold, NAS values ≥ 3 and ≥ 4 were separately considered as definitions of NASH. Lowering

the NAS threshold improved the agreement of the NAS criteria with the original criteria for NAFLD subtypes and with the current study’s NASH criteria [κ = 0.645 (95% CI = 0.544-0.746) and κ = 0.564 (95% CI = 0.457-0.672) for the NAS threshold of 3 and κ = 0.600 (95% CI = 0.502-0.698) and κ = 0.602 (95% CI = 0.504-0.701) for the NAS threshold of 4, respectively]. Despite this improvement in κ scores, the agreement remained moderate. On the other hand, assessing the agreement between different protocols for the fibrosis stage, we were able to show that the NAS fibrosis scores and the current study’s fibrosis scores were in excellent agreement [nonparametric correlation coefficient = 0.74 (P < 0.0001) for pericellular fibrosis and nonparametric correlation coefficient = 0.83 (P < 0.0001) for portal fibrosis]. Regardless of which criteria were used to establish the diagnosis of NASH (with the exception of the Brunt criteria), patients with the pathologic diagnosis of NASH had higher LRM than those with non-NASH NAFLD (Table 4).