This may be of particular importance since previously published analysis of human
iliac crest biopsies from osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic (based on the classical clinical criteria) patients sustaining atraumatic or low trauma fragility fractures shows similar results as far as collagen cross-link ratio is concerned  and . Additionally, the results were obtained in vertebrae, and the incidence of vertebral fractures in osteoporosis is twice that of hip fractures , although caution should be exercised as an animal model was employed in the present study. These results become even more important in view of the recent clinical reports, which have correlated plasma homocysteine levels and bone fragility , ,  and  when it is noted that the mechanism by which homocysteine
and β-APN block collagen learn more cross-link formation is analogous. GDC-0980 mw None of the authors have any conflict of interest. The authors thank Gerda Dinst, Sabrina Thon, Phaedra Messmer, and Daniela Gabriel for careful sample preparations and qBEI measurements at the Bone Material Laboratory of the Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute of Osteology, Vienna, Austria. This study was supported by the Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (AUVA), research funds of the Austrian workers compensation board; the Wiener Gebietskrankenkasse (WGKK), Viennese sickness insurance funds; and the Fonds zur Foederung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (FWF); the Division of Periodontology, Ohio State University; a research grant from the Alliance for Better Bone Health (to EPP); NIH grant AR046505 (to EPP). “
“The incidence of vertebral fracture increases linearly with aging and is significantly correlated with declining bone mineral density almost (BMD). The incidence of hip fracture, on the other hand, rises exponentially
with aging, suggesting that age-related factors other than BMD contribute greatly to the fragility of the proximal femur. Hip fractures cause substantial disability and are associated with a high rate of death among elderly women . Because vertebral fracture is the most common of osteoporotic fractures, the efficacy of anti-osteoporotic agents is judged in clinical trials by evaluating the incidence of vertebral fracture. The incidence of hip fracture is much lower than that of vertebral fracture, especially in elderly Japanese, and in clinical trials of anti-osteoporotic agents hip fracture is assessed as a secondary endpoint or as one of the non-vertebral fractures. However, in view of the increasing incidence of hip fracture in the Japanese population  and its consequences of seriously reducing quality of life (QOL) , measures to prevent hip fracture are of paramount importance.