This contribution is much slighter in the case of the dispersions

This contribution is much slighter in the case of the dispersions at pH 7.0, where already negatively-charged unloaded dispersions tend to slightly decrease their zeta potential upon siRNA addition. In both cases, there is a slight tendency within formulations of the same pH to more negative values as the N/P ratio decreases, which could indicate that location of the oligonucleotide is at least in part on the surface of the particles. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical TEM and SEM images of

the particles are presented in Figures ​Figures55 and ​and6,6, respectively. The sizes derived from the micrographs tend to be smaller than that measured when using the particle sizer. This is understandable because the photon correlation spectroscopic particle sizer determines the size of the particles by measuring the movement of the particles due to Brownian motion. Therefore, the particle size determined using the particles sizer was in fact the size of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical particles with their surrounding aqueous boundary layer, which moved together

with the particles. In contrast, the particle size derived from the micrograph was the size of the particles alone [25]. Figure 5 Transmission electron micrographs of the lecithin-based nanoparticles. Lecithin-based dispersions containing 25mM phosphatidylcholine, alone in pH 5.0 (a) and pH 7.0 (c) buffers, are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shown. The same dispersions were then loaded with siRNA at … Figure 6 Scanning electron micrographs of the siRNA-loaded lecithin-based nanoparticles in pH 5.0 (a) and pH 7.0 (b) buffers. WLD regulated at pH 5.0 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical containing 25mM phosphatidylcholine exhibited particles of nanometric size and irregular shape (Figure 5(a)); when loaded with siRNA, the particles changed to a spherical shape of a smaller diameter (Figure 5(b)). Probably, this change in shape is due to the change in the electrostatic interactions present in the polar head of phosphatidylcholine when the oligonucleotide is added, allowing a structural reorganization. While at pH 5.0, small, spherical, isolated particles are presented, at pH 7.0 more elongated, locally cylindrical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical structures are observed (Figures

5(c) and 5(d)). In our work, the presence of salts like NaCl and sodium acetate collaborates to Cell press increase the ionic strength of the medium. It is well known that the higher the ionic strength of the medium, the lower the see more critical micelle concentration (CMC) as well as the size of the structures. Walter and colleagues studied the vesicle-to-micelle transition process in buffers with 0–4M sodium chloride, sucrose, and urea and concluded that the CMC decreased in high salt and sucrose buffers [29]. Moreover, it has been reported by Huang that in aqueous C8-lecithin solution, chloride salts first slightly raise the CMC and then decrease it, while the ionic strength increases [30]. This may contribute to the quick and easy formation of defined particles after siRNA loading and also determine their nanometric sizes. Recently, Barichello et al.

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