Drug concentrations in plasma and bile were analyzed pharmacokine

Drug concentrations in plasma and bile were analyzed pharmacokinetically and used for a Monte Carlo simulation to predict the probability of attaining the pharmacodynamic

target (40% of the time above the MIC). Both drugs penetrated similarly into bile, with mean bile/plasma ratios of 0.24 to 0.25 (maximum drug concentration) and 0.30 to 0.38 (area under the drug concentration-time curve). CX-6258 supplier The usual regimens of meropenem (0.5 g every 8 h [q8h]) and biapenem (0.3 g q8h) (0.5-h infusions) achieved similar target attainment probabilities in bile (>= 90%) against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates. However, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, meropenem at 1 g q8h and biapenem at 0.6 g q8h were required for values of 80.7% and 71.9%, respectively. The biliary pharmacodynamic-based breakpoint (the highest MIC at which the MLN8237 ic50 target attainment probability in bile was >= 90%) was 1 mg/liter for 0.5 g q8h and 2 mg/liter for 1 g q8h for meropenem and 0.5 mg/liter for 0.3 g q8h and 1 mg/liter for 0.6 g q8h for biapenem. These results help to define the clinical pharmacokinetics of the two carbapenems in bile while also helping to rationalize and optimize the dosing regimens for biliary tract infections based on site-specific pharmacodynamic

target attainment.”
“The growth of Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 7145 on meso-erythritol is characterized by two stages: in the first stage, meso-erythritol is oxidized almost stoichiometrically to L-erythrulose according to the Bertrand Hudson rule. The second phase is distinguished from the first phase by a global metabolic change from membrane-bound meso-erythritol oxidation to L-erythrulose assimilation with concomitant accumulation of acetic acid. The membrane-associated

erythritol-oxidizing enzyme was found to be encoded by a gene homologous to sldA known from other species of acetic acid bacteria. Disruption of this gene in the genome of G. oxydans DSM 7145 revealed that the membrane-bound polyol dehydrogenase not only oxidizes meso-erythritol but also has a broader substrate spectrum which includes C3-C6 polyols and D-gluconate and supports growth on these substrates. Cultivation of G. oxydans DSM 7145 on different substrates indicated that expression I-BET-762 of the polyol dehydrogenase was not regulated, implying that the production of biomass of G. oxydans to be used as whole-cell biocatalysts in the biotechnological conversion of meso-erythritol to L-erythrulose, which is used as a tanning agent in the cosmetics industry, can be conveniently carried out with glucose as the growth substrate.”
“Objective: Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin gene (PGRN) were identified in 4 frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions (FTLD-U). We assessed whether PGRN also contributes to genetic risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) in an extended Belgian AD patient group (n = 779, onset age 74.7 +/- 8.7 years).

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