hongkongensis isolates buy MK-0457 in this study. Each number represents a MLST sequence type (ST) and each line connects STs that differ in only one of the seven housekeeping genes. Boxed numbers represent STs found in both human and fish, shaded numbers represent STs found only in human, and un-boxed and un-shaded numbers represent STs found only in fish. Hollow circles and squares represent predicted group and subgroup founders respectively. The sizes of the circles and squares are proportional to the number of isolates within each ST. Figure 3 Split decomposition analysis of MLST data of L. hongkongensis isolates in this study. Split decomposition network was constructed using the individual (rho, acnB, ftsH, trpE, ilvC, thiC
and eno) gene sequences. The scale bar represents the number of substitutions per site. Table 3 Shimodaira-Hasegawa test for congruency among tree topologies for the seven loci and their concatenated sequencea Locus Results Concatenation
rho acnB ftsH trpE ilvC thiC eno Concatenation 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* rho 0.0001* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0001* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* acnB 0.0001* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* ftsH 0.0003* 0.0002* 0.0002* 0.0003* 0.0002* 0.0002* 0.0003* trpE 0.0001* 0.0000* 0.0001* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* ilvC 0.0075* 0.0090* 0.0064* 0.0048* 0.0056* 0.0059* 0.0072* thiC 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* 0.0000* eno 0.0008* 0.0003* 0.0008* 0.0003* 0.0008* 0.0008* 0.0008* aP values (*, P < 0.05) represent differences in likelihood score between the maximum likelihood topology of each locus No relationships MEK inhibitor were observed among the L. hongkongensis isolates with respect to their years of isolation; the locations of the hospitals, age and sex of the patients and the presence of plasmids in the isolates from patients ; nor to the species of the fish and the locations
of the markets where the fish were purchased. Discussion A highly discriminative MLST scheme was developed for L. hongkongensis. Seven housekeeping genes with very low d n /d s ratios of the range of 0.0000 – 0.0355, similar to the housekeeping genes in other MLST schemes, were employed to produce a highly discriminative MLST scheme, with discriminatory power of 0.9861, comparable to the MLST schemes of other MRIP pathogenic bacteria, for molecular typing of L. hongkongensis. When the same L. hongkongensis isolate was subcultured 50 times, no difference was observed between the sequences of the seven gene loci in the original isolate and the one after 50 subcultures (data not shown). Therefore, these seven loci are discriminative enough for typing, but not evolving too rapidly to an extent that will mask genetic relatedness, as in the case of Helicobacter selleck chemicals pylori, another urease positive, S-shaped and motile alimentary tract microbe [24, 25]. The L. hongkongensis isolates recovered from fish were clustered. In our previous study on ecoepidemiology of L.