4.1 (WKM Business Software BV, Assen, The Netherlands), which is routinely used to register vaccination and chemoprophylaxis prescription at the pre-travel clinic. The second was Norma EMD/EPD (MI Consultancy, Katwijk, The Netherlands), which
is used as the electronic patient record for daily clinical care at the AMC and includes medical details of patients. Orion Globe 7.4.1 was used to collect information on travel and demographic details (age, gender, country of destination, travel period and duration, pre-travel vaccinations, and antibiotics prescribed). Norma EMD/EPD was used to collect information on clinical specifics such as patient history, medication, and relevant laboratory parameters: eg, CD4+ count in HIV positive patients. Through telephone questionnaires, we obtained details selleck chemicals llc on the Selleck MK0683 occurrence of health problems during or after travel: type of illness, timing, self-medication, contact
with local medical facilities (including hospital admission), and disease outcome. Additionally, we questioned participants about the nature of their travel (whether visiting friends or relatives, vacation, internship, or business). Travel destinations: We reported a maximum of three countries of destination. If patients visited more than three countries, we specified the region as described by Freedman and colleagues.10 If a patient had visited three continents or more, we defined the journey as a world trip. In our statistical analysis, we defined the region where exposure most likely happened, deduced from timing of TRD, as the travel destination. Medication: We documented both name and dosage of immune-suppressive agents used. Additionally, we documented use of other medication (only the drug, not the dosage). A minimum of 10 mg prednisolone per day or an equivalent was noted, based on the LCR statement that this is the minimum dose to exert a relevant
effect on the immune system.9 For chemotherapy among cancer patients, we only included patients who had their last course <3 months prior to inclusion, as no significant effect on the immune system is expected after this period.6,9 Reported health problems: Health problems were divided in syndrome categories as described by Freedman and colleagues.10 If available, we documented a diagnosis. Relevant TRD: We defined relevant TRD as self-reported fever Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (measured temperature above 38°C); self-reported diarrhea with or without blood (acute: frequent loose stools lasting >1 d; persistent to chronic: frequent loose stools lasting >14 d), infectious dermatological disorders, respiratory problems, and fatigue/overall malaise lasting over 7 days resulting in a physician’s consultation. We excluded health problems that did not potentially have an infectious cause from the definition of TRD (eg, traumatic injuries). If more than one health problem was reported in the same time period (<3 d between the onset of the two symptoms), we recorded the predominant symptom.