In: Shorthouse JD, Rohfrisch O (eds) Biology of insect-induced ga

In: Shorthouse JD, Rohfrisch O (eds) Biology of insect-induced galls. Oxford University Press, New York Fernandes GW, Price PW (1992) The adaptive significance of insect gall distribution—survivorship of species in xeric and mesic habitats. Oecologia 90(1):14–20CrossRef Fullaway DT (1911) Monograph of the gall-making Cynipidae (Cynipinae) of California. Ann Entomol Soc Am 4(4):331–379 Hayward A, Stone GN (2005) Oak gall wasp communities: evolution and ecology. Basic Appl Ecol 6(5):435–443CrossRef find more Hutchinson GE (1959) Homage to santa-rosalia or why are there so many kinds of animals. Am Nat 93(870):145–159CrossRef Inouye BD, Agrawal

AA (2004) Ant mutualists alter the composition and PD0332991 mouse attack rate of the parasitoid community for the gall wasp Disholcaspis eldoradensis (Cynipidae). Ecol Entomol 29:692–696CrossRef Jones D (1983) The influence of host density and gall shape on the survivorship of Diastrophus kincaidii Gill (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae). Can J Zool 61(9):2138–2142CrossRef Kinsey AC (1922) Studies of some new and described Cynipidae (Hymernoptera). Indiana University Studies 53:3–171 Liu Z, Engel MS, Grimaldi DA (2007) Phylogeny and geological history of the Cynipoid wasps (Hymenoptera:

Cynipoidea). Am Mus Novit (3583):1–48 Marchosky RJ, Craig TP (2004) Gall size-dependent survival for Asphondylia atriplicis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Atriplex canescens. Environ Entomol 33(3):709–719CrossRef Miller DG, Ivey CT, Shedd JD (2009) Support for the microenvironment hypothesis selleck products for adaptive value of gall induction in the California gall wasp, Andricus quercuscalifornicus. Entomol Exp Appl 132(2):126–133CrossRef Moorehead JR, Taper ML, Case TJ (1993) Utilization of hybrid oak hosts by a monophagous gall wasp—how little host character is sufficient? Oecologia 95(3):385–392CrossRef Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, O’Hara B, Simpson G, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Wagner H (2010) vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 1.17.1. http://​CRAN.​R-project.​org/​package=​vegan R Core Development Team (2008) R. The R Foundation Rohfritsch O (1992) Patterns of

gall development. In: Shorthouse JD, Rohfritsch O (eds) Biology of insect-induced galls. Oxford University Press, Oxford Ronquist 4��8C F, Liljeblad J (2001) Evolution of the gall wasp-host plant association. Evolution 55(12):2503–2522PubMed Rosenthal SS, Koehler CS (1971a) Heterogony in some gall-forming Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) with notes on biology of Neuroterus saltatorius. Ann Entomol Soc Am 64(3):565 Rosenthal SS, Koehler CS (1971b) Intertree distributions of some Cynipid (Hymenoptera) galls on Quercus lobata. Ann Entomol Soc Am 64(3):571–574 Russo R (2006) Field guide to plant galls of California and other Western States. University of California Press, Berkeley Schick KN (2002) Cynipid-induced galls and California oaks.

The increased transcription of luxS and ycmA indicated that biofi

The increased transcription of luxS and ycmA indicated that biofilm formation of FZB42 could be enhanced by some compounds present in root exudates. iii) The third functional group with the highest number of genes induced by root exudates was associated with the non-ribosomal synthesis of secondary selleck inhibitor metabolites with antimicrobial action (Table 3). Producing secondary metabolites suppressing deleterious microbes in the rhizosphere is an established mechanism of biocontrol adopted by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on plants [19, 48, 49]. The majority Lazertinib cost of the induced genes are devoted to the synthesis of two polyketide antibiotics, bacillaene and difficidin.

Some components in the exudates could stimulate the production of these two antibiotics, which have Selleckchem Rigosertib been demonstrated to be able to protect orchard trees from fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora [49]. Table 3 FZB42 genes which were significantly induced by maize root exudates and involved in antibiotic production (Refer to experiment “Response to RE”: E-MEXP-3421) Gene Product Fold change baeE malonyl-CoA-[acyl-carrier protein] transacylase BaeE 1.6 baeI enoyl-CoA-hydratase BaeI 2.2 baeL polyketide synthase BaeL 1.9 baeN hybrid NRPS/PKS BaeN 1.5 baeR polyketide synthase BaeR 2.3 dfnJ modular polyketide synthase of type I DfnJ

2 dfnI modular polyketide synthase of type I DfnI 1.7 dfnG modular polyketide synthase of type I DfnG 2 dfnF modular polyketide synthase of type I DfnF 2.4 mlnH polyketide synthase of type I MlnH 1.5 fenE fengycin synthetase FenE 1.5 srfAD surfactin synthetase D SrfAD 1.9 srfAC surfactin synthetase C SrfAC 1.7 Another two genes, mlnH and fenE, were also induced, which

are known to participate in non-ribosmal biosynthesis of macrolactin and fengycin, respectively. Macrolactin, a polyketide product found in FZB42, has activity against some Gram-positive bacteria [50], while fengycin can act against phytopathogenic fungi in a synergistic manner with bacillomycin D [19, 51]. In addition, two genes encoding surfactin synthetase however were also activated by root exudates (Table 3). Surfactin is one of Bacillus cyclic lipopeptides, displaying antiviral and antibacterial activities. In Arabidopsis it has been shown that the ability of Bacillus to synthesize surfactin can reduce the invasion of Pseudomonas syringae[30]. although it is not yet clear whether the protective effect resulted directly from the antibacterial activity of surfactin or from its biofilm-related properties. Surfactin is crucially involved in the motility of Bacillus by reducing surface tensions [36, 37, 52] and contributing to biofilm formation on Arabidopsis roots [30]. It has also been demonstrated that surfactin production of FZB42 was enhanced when colonizing the duckweed plant Lemna minor [21].

J Am Chem Soc 2011, 133:1718–1721 PubMedCrossRef 21 King SJ, Hip

J Am Chem Soc 2011, 133:1718–1721.PubMedCrossRef 21. King SJ, Hippe KR, Gould JM, Bae D, Peterson S, Cline RT, et al.: Phase variable desialylation of host proteins that bind to Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo and protect the airway. Mol

Microbiol 2004, 54:159–171.PubMedCrossRef 22. Almagro-Moreno ARRY-438162 clinical trial S, Boyd EF: Bacterial catabolism of nonulosonic (sialic) acid and fitness in the gut. Gut Microbes 2010, 1:45–50.PubMedCrossRef 23. Bidossi A, Mulas L, Decorosi F, Colomba L, Ricci S, Pozzi G, et al.: A functional genomics approach to establish the complement of carbohydrate transporters in Streptococcus pneumoniae. PLoS One 2012, 7:e33320.PubMedCrossRef 24. Oggioni MR, Trappetti C, Kadioglu A, Cassone M, Iannelli F, Ricci S, et al.: Switch from planktonic to sessile life: a major event in pneumococcal pathogenesis. Mol Microbiol 2006, 4EGI-1 solubility dmso 61:1196–1210.PubMedCrossRef 25. LeMessuier KS, Ogunniyi DA, Paton JC: Differential expression of key pneumococcal virulence genes in vivo. Microbiology 2006, 152:305–311.CrossRef 26. Bateman A: The SIS domain: a phosphosugar-binding domain. Trends Biochem Sci 1999, 24:94–95.PubMedCrossRef 27. Tong HH, Blue LE, James MA, De Maria TF: Evaluation of virulence of a Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase-deficient mutant in nasopharyngeal colonization and development of otitis media in the chinchilla model. Infect Immun 2000, 68:921–924.PubMedCrossRef

28. Orihuela CJ, Gao G, Francis KP, Yu J,

Tuomanen EI: Tissue-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence factors to pathogenesis. Celecoxib J Infect Dis 2004, 190:1661–1669.PubMedCrossRef 29. King SJ, Hippe KR, Weiser JN: Deglycosilation of human glycoconjugates by the sequential activities of see more exoglycosidases expressed by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 2006, 59:961–974.PubMedCrossRef 30. Burnaugh AM, Frantz LJ, King SJ: Growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae on human glycoconjugates is dependent upon the sequential activity of bacterial exoglycosidases. J Bacteriol 2008, 190:221–230.PubMedCrossRef 31. Hoskins J, Alborn WE, Arnold J, Blaszczak LC, Burgett S, Dehoff BS, et al.: Genome of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae strain R6. J Bacteriol 2001, 183:5709–5717.PubMedCrossRef 32. Byers HL, Homer KA, Beighton D: Utilisation of sialic acid by viridans streptococci. J Dent Res 1996, 75:1564–1571.PubMedCrossRef 33. Vollmer W: Structural variation in the glycan strands of bacterial peptidoglycan. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2008, 32:287–306.PubMedCrossRef 34. Deutscher J, Francke C, Pot B, Postma PW: How phosphotransferase system-related protein phosphorylation regulates carbohydrate metabolism in bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2006, 70:939–1031.PubMedCrossRef 35. Poncet S, Milohanic E, Maze A, Nait Abdallah J, Ake F, Larribe M, et al.: Correlations between carbon metabolism and virulence in bacteria. Contrib Microbiol 2009, 16:88–102.PubMedCrossRef 36.

2%) had had heavy side effects: 5 psychomotor slowness (4 patient

2%) had had heavy side effects: 5 psychomotor slowness (4 patients with PB and 1 with VPA), 4 rash (all patient with PB), 2 periarthritis (all patients with PB), 1 somnolence (patient with PB) and 1 liver toxicity (patient with CBZ) [See additional file 2]. OXC Group Patient Profiles Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristic are depicted in table 3 [see additional file 3]. Twelve patients had Givinostat brain metastases, 4 GBM, 10 AA, 1 OA, 6 LGA and 2 meningioma. During follow up,

6 patients had undergone only chemotherapy, 3 patients had undergone only radiotherapy, 23 patients had undergone both chemotherapy and radiotherapy and 3 patients had not undergone any systemic therapy. Fourteen patients had had tumoral progression. The mean age at diagnosis of brain tumor was 52 years (range 18 to 81 years). Eleven patients had had SP seizures, 4 had had CP, 6 had had SP+SGTC and 14 had had CP+SGTC seizures. Eighteen patients had already been treated with other AEDs: PB = 14; CBZ = 3; selleck topiramate – TPM- (N = 1) that had been changed to OXC for heavy side effects (8 patients), uncontrolled seizures (9 patients)

and 1 for uncontrolled seizures and heavy side effects. Mean dosages had been: PB = 103.6 mg/day, CBZ = 466.70 mg/day, TPM 150 (only 1 patient). Seventeen had been naïve patients. During the period considered for the study, patients Blasticidin S concentration had all been in monotherapy with OXC with a mean daily dosage of 1162.5 mg [See additional file 4]. Efficacy The mean seizure frequency per month before OXC Methocarbamol therapy had been 2.9, and at the final follow-up had been 0.6 (35 patients). Considering separately the two subgroups naive patients versus patients presenting for side effects/inefficacy, the mean seizure frequency per month before OXC therapy had been 4.64 (naïve patients, 17 patients) and 1.3 (non-naïve patients,

18 patients). At the final follow-up the mean seizure frequency had been 0.88 (naïve patients) and 0.4 (non-naïve patients). At final follow up, we obtained 62.9% patients who were seizure free (22 patients). GLM repeated measure analysis showed a significant reduction of seizure frequency at final follow-up (p = 0.0018). Mean duration of follow up was 16.1 months (range 4 to 48 months). Adverse Events During follow up 4 patients (11.4%) reported side effects: 1 patient (2.9%) had had mild and reversible side effects (mild rash and liver toxicity) and 3 (8.6%) had had heavy side effects (2 rash and 1 cephalea) [See additional file 4]. Comparison between the two groups Efficacy In order to compare monthly seizure frequency in both groups we used GLM repeated measure analysis with variables: treatment groups (Traditional AEDs versus OXC group), visit (baseline versus follow up), and interaction Group × Visit. Statistical analysis for both groups showed a significant reduction of seizure frequency between first visit and last follow up visit (p < 0.0001).

Before discussing the main findings of the present study, a few w

Before discussing the main findings of the present study, a few words about the stability of our investigated constructs should be mentioned. All of the three constructs were found to be fairly stable over time. Even though work–family conflict was the least stable of the three constructs, it was found to be rather stable over time with a stability coefficient of .46, which is

in line with findings from previous studies such as Rantanen (Rantanen et al. 2012), who found that mean levels of work-to-family conflict were rather stable over such a long time span as 14 years. One explanation could be that contextual factors lead to a perceived imbalance between work and non-work. Those can be difficult to resolve and thus are persistent over time. Even emotional exhaustion which is said Momelotinib purchase to be one of the key aspects of burnout (Maslach et al. 1996) had a high stability over time. An individual who experiences stress over a prolonged period of time gets drained of energy, which eventually results Selleck Fedratinib in emotional exhaustion, i.e. feelings of being overextended and depleted of one’s emotional and physical resources. The experience of emotional exhaustion has been associated with a slow recovery even after the energy draining stress source has disappeared. Moreover, individuals might not recognize their need to resolve the stressful situation at once, which eventually

leads to even more stress and loss of energy. These facts could explain the stability of this construct in the present study. Performance-based self-esteem and emotional exhaustion were most stable, where about half of the variance of time 2 was predicted by the level at time 1. This is in line with the conceptualization of performance-based self-esteem according to Hallsten et al. (2005), who predicted it to be a habitual pattern that influences behaviour, thoughts and emotions.

Still, research has shown that for instance, self-esteem can be affected (Blom 2012; Hallsten et al. 2012; Innstrand et al. 2010). To proceed with the discussion of the time-lagged relationships, our best fitting model revealed some interesting findings. In contrast to what have been reported from earlier studies (Hall et al. 2010; ZD1839 purchase Karatepe and Tekinkus 2006; Leineweber et al. 2012), we could not establish a relationship between work–family conflict time 1 and emotional exhaustion at time 2. Contrary, we did find that a reversed causal path fitted the data best, where emotional exhaustion preceded work–family conflict. Thus, our results were partly in line with results reported by Leiter and Durup (1996) and Demerouti et al. (2004), who report reciprocal relationships between work–family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Demerouti et al. (2004) conclude that neither work–family conflict nor exhaustion can only be considered cause or effect.

PubMedCrossRef 25 Javadpour MM, Juban MM, Lo WC, Bishop SM, Albe

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CrossRef 4. Suárez S, Devaux A, Bañuelos J, Bossart O, Kunzmann A, Calzaferri G: Transparent zeolite–polymer hybrid

materials with adaptable properties. Adv Funct Mater 2007, 17:2298–2306.CrossRef 5. Althues H, Henle J, Kaskel S: Functional inorganic nanofillers for transparent polymers. Chem Soc Rev 2007, 36:1454–1465.CrossRef 6. Iskandar F: Nanoparticle processing for optical applications – a review. Adv Powder Technol 2009, 20:283–292.CrossRef 7. Ruiterkamp GJ, Hempenius MA, Wormeester H, Vancso GJ: Surface find more functionalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with alkanephosphonic acids for transparent nanocomposites. J Nanoparticle Res 2010, 13:2779–2790.CrossRef 8. Jeon I-Y, Baek J-B: Nanocomposites derived from polymers and inorganic GM6001 manufacturer nanoparticles. Materials 2010, 3:3654–3674.CrossRef 9. Lu C, Cui Z, Wang Y, Li Z, Guan C, Yang B, Shen J: Preparation and characterization of ZnS–polymer

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of cases (control group) Control group: retrospective 17 (10) 7 (

of cases (control group) Control group: retrospective 17 (10) 7 (none) 14 (none) 8 (none) 16 (none) 11 (none) Primary disease (no. of cases) FSGS (14/9) MCNS(3/1) MN (3) MCNS(2) IgAGN (1) FSGS (14) PSL

resistant FSGS(6) MCNS (1) MN + FSGS (1) FSGS (13) MN (3) FSGS (11) PSL, Selleck Salubrinal CyA resistant No. of Treatment 2/w × 3 1/w × 6 Total 12 2/w × 3 1/w × 7 Total 13 2/w × 3 Total 6 2-13 7.3 (average) 2/w × 3 Total 6 2/w × 3 1/w × 6 Total 12 Concomitant treatment (no. of cases) PSL 1.0 mg/kg none (4) PSL(1) PSL + CyA (2) PSL 0.8 mg/kg PSL/pulse 1.0 mg/kg PSL (14) immunosuppressant (10) PSL 1.0 mg/kg Clinical efficacy Remission 9 Partial remission 4 no effect 4 Remission 2 Partial remission 4 no effect 1 Responded 8 no effect 6 Remission 4 Partial remission 1 no effect 3 Improved 7 Unchanged 3 Worsened

3 unjudgemental 3 Remission 5 Partial remission 2 Efficacy rate 76 % 86 % 57 % 63 % FSGS 54 % 76 % Summary Reduced remission induction period Increased serum albumin Increased serum albumin Effective in younger age Amelioration of ApoB deposition buy 5-Fluoracil in glomerulus 5 in 6 cases >50 % reduction of proteinuria in 9 cases Effective in PSL resistant juvenile patients Acknowledgments The {Selleck Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Selleck Antidiabetic Compound Library|Selleck Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Selleck Antidiabetic Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Selleckchem Antidiabetic Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Selleckchem Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library|buy Anti-diabetic Compound Library|Anti-diabetic Compound Library ic50|Anti-diabetic Compound Library price|Anti-diabetic Compound Library cost|Anti-diabetic Compound Library solubility dmso|Anti-diabetic Compound Library purchase|Anti-diabetic Compound Library manufacturer|Anti-diabetic Compound Library research buy|Anti-diabetic Compound Library order|Anti-diabetic Compound Library mouse|Anti-diabetic Compound Library chemical structure|Anti-diabetic Compound Library mw|Anti-diabetic Compound Library molecular weight|Anti-diabetic Compound Library datasheet|Anti-diabetic Compound Library supplier|Anti-diabetic Compound Library in vitro|Anti-diabetic Compound Library cell line|Anti-diabetic Compound Library concentration|Anti-diabetic Compound Library nmr|Anti-diabetic Compound Library in vivo|Anti-diabetic Compound Library clinical trial|Anti-diabetic Compound Library cell assay|Anti-diabetic Compound Library screening|Anti-diabetic Compound Library high throughput|buy Antidiabetic Compound Library|Antidiabetic Compound Library ic50|Antidiabetic Compound Library price|Antidiabetic Compound Library cost|Antidiabetic Compound Library solubility dmso|Antidiabetic Compound Library purchase|Antidiabetic Compound Library manufacturer|Antidiabetic Compound Library research buy|Antidiabetic Compound Library order|Antidiabetic Compound Library chemical structure|Antidiabetic Compound Library datasheet|Antidiabetic Compound Library supplier|Antidiabetic Compound Library in vitro|Antidiabetic Compound Library cell line|Antidiabetic Compound Library concentration|Antidiabetic Compound Library clinical trial|Antidiabetic Compound Library cell assay|Antidiabetic Compound Library screening|Antidiabetic Compound Library high throughput|Anti-diabetic Compound high throughput screening| author would like to thank Drs. Soichi Sakai, Masatoshi Mune, Tsutomu Hirano, Motoshi Hattori, Kenjiro Kimura, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Sato, Shunya Uchida, Takashi Wada, Tetsuo Shoji, Tsukasa Takemura, Yukio Yuzawa, Hiroaki Oda, Kiyoshi Mori, and Takao Saito for their support as members of the Sinomenine Japanese Society of Kidney and Lipids. The author also thanks Drs. Hitomi Miyata, Mari Maeda, and Hiroyuki Matsushima for their contributions to patient

care and related studies. Conflict of interest There is no conflict of interest in the preparation and submission of this manuscript. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. References 1. Sulowicz W, Stompor T. LDL-apheresis and immunoadsorption: novel methods in the treatment of renal diseases refractory to conventional therapy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:v59–62.PubMedCrossRef 2. Moorhead JF, Chan MK, El-Nahas M, et al. Lipid nephrotoxicity in chronic progressive glomerular and tubulo-interstitial disease. Lancet. 1982;2(8311):1309–11.PubMedCrossRef 3. Ong AC, et al. Tubular lipidosis: epiphenomenon or pathogenetic lesion in human renal disease? Kidney Int. 1994;45:753–62.PubMedCrossRef 4. Sakurai M, Muso E, Matsushima H, Ono T, Sasayama S. Rapid normalization of interleukin-8 production after low-density lipoprotein apheresis in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int Suppl. 1999;71:S210–2.PubMedCrossRef 5. Savin VJ, McCarthy ET, Sharma M. Permeability factors in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

For the GxxxG motif

For the GxxxG motif INK1197 cost region, there is always going to be evidence of phylogenetic signal due to the strongly conserved glycine residues (30.7% identical for GxxxGxxxGxxxG) and there is certainly some conservation in the lengths of the repeats in sequences that are more closely related (Figures 4 and 5). However, the imposed 25% sequence identity cutoff in our data analysis has filtered most of the apparent sequence similarity in the variable regions of the repeat. This can be seen by comparing the similarity between

any two aligned sequences both within the repeat region (Figure 5) and outside of the repeats (see Additional files 1 and 2). For FliH, we calculated correlation coefficients between all possible pairs of amino acids, in all possible combinations of positions in the repeats, and used statistical methods to determine whether certain pairs of amino acids

in specific positions are found together significantly more often than would be expected by chance. We hypothesized that certain pairs of amino acids in nearby positions, such as positions within the same repeat, or in adjacent Selleckchem A1155463 repeats, would be highly correlated, while amino acids in positions farther away from each other would be unlikely to be strongly correlated, and that the correlations are due to selective pressure imposed by structural constraints on the GxxxG motifs. For instance, in α-helices, there is a well known incidence of oppositely charged residues (for example glutamate and lysine) occurring in i, i+4 or i, i+3 pairs, therefore Sepantronium chemical structure forming stabilizing intra-helical salt bridges, and these are typically not highly conserved interactions. Farnesyltransferase Rather they appear to be the result of random mutations and selective pressures to stabilize nearby charged residues within the context of the helical structure. Similar results have been found for pair correlations in β-sheets [37]. Figure 4 Number of FliH sequences having primary repeat segments of different lengths. The number of FliH sequences having primary repeat segments of different

lengths is shown. The number on the x-axis represents only the number of GxxxGs; flanking AxxxGs and GxxxAs were not counted. Figure 5 Multiple alignment of the primary repeat segments from the FliH proteins of different organisms. The primary repeat segments in the FliH proteins were aligned by hand. Only sequences that contained a repeat segment appear in this alignment. Finally, we sought to determine how prevalent long glycine repeats are in other types of proteins not related to FliH, and to identify a protein of known three-dimensional structure that contains a FliH-like repeat segment that is involved in helix-helix dimerization. To address both goals, a large number of protein structures were downloaded from the Protein Data Bank (PDB; http://​www.​rcsb.​org/​pdb).

(XLS 86 KB) References 1 Janda JM, Abbott SL: The genus Aeromona

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