, 2005) Slime capsules, made up by exopolysaccharides, frequentl

, 2005). Slime capsules, made up by exopolysaccharides, frequently contain

sulfated polysaccharides ( Poli et al., 2010). Though the holdfast substance is of unknown composition, one can speculate about sulfated polysaccharides being present. Cell material in our study was harvested during exponential phase. In exponential phase, aggregate formation and attachment to solid surfaces are not strongly pronounced. Therefore additional functions mediated by sulfatases are likely. Taking results from stress response studies, life cycle analyses and our study together, sulfatases seem to play diverse roles referring to the metabolism of R. baltica SH1T. Findings relating VE-821 to single sulfatases being expressed under stress conditions,

particular life cycle stages and exposure to sulfated growth substrates suggest a multifunctionality of individual sulfatases. The exceptionally high number of sulfatase genes found in the nine planctomycetal genomes is an outstanding feature of these organisms. Such high numbers are normally only found for e.g., transporter or regulator genes. The bioinformatic analysis of 1120 sulfatases revealed 240 discriminable lineages of exclusively Cys-type group I sulfatases, grouping into 19 major phylogenetic clusters. Only for five of these clusters, reviewed orthologs in other organisms are currently known. A core set of 60 sulfatases occurring in all nine investigated organisms has been identified, which are of unknown function as yet, but represent prime targets selleck chemicals for future experimental analysis. We interpret the huge diversity of sulfatases as a response to the diversity of sulfated compounds in nature

and especially in the marine environment. For R. baltica SH1T, distinct sulfatase expression profiles in cells grown on different sulfated polysaccharides proved a functional link between sulfated polysaccharides and planctomycetal sulfatases. In line with previous studies the constitutive expression of a subset of sulfatases points towards a central PD184352 (CI-1040) role in cellular functions beyond polysaccharide degradation. We would like to express our gratitude to Andreas Ellrott and Emina Karamehmedovic for help during microarray processing and laboratory assistance. We thank Gurvan Michel for detailed information on sulfated polysaccharides in marine environments. Thanks a lot to Florian Battke for straightforward help relating to MayDay. This project was funded by the Max Planck Society, which we gratefully acknowledge. “
“Like Plants, Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis during the day, a process that provides the primary source of energy for almost all forms of life on Earth. Algae and Cyanobacteria attract more and more attention to production of clean and sustainable energy and other valuable products.

Especially in the biological and pharmaceutical sectors, nanostru

Especially in the biological and pharmaceutical sectors, nanostructure materials are attracting a great deal of attention because of their potential for achieving specific processes and selectivity.38 Decreasing the dimension of nanoparticles has a pronounced effect on their physical properties, which significantly differ Z-VAD-FMK supplier from those of the bulk material. Moreover, there are several reasons for the use of silver nanoparticles in nanotechnology as well as in the medical and pharmaceutical fields, especially in wound healing. The properties that aid in wound healing are listed here and in Table 2. (1) Silver compounds have been used in medicine throughout the history of civilization.39,

40, 41, 42 and 43 (2) It is easy to synthesize silver nanoparticles in large scale by several simple, inexpensive, safe, and reliable ways, including wet chemical, physical and biological methods.38 (3) They can be synthesized in sizes from 2 to 500 nm by changing the reaction parameters. (4) They can be easily synthesized in different

shapes (spheres, rods, tubes, wires, ribbons, plates, GSK J4 cubes, hexagons, triangles) by the selection of templates and reaction conditions.38 (5) Because of the presence of a negative charge on their surface, they are highly reactive, which makes their surfaces modifiable by means of several biomolecules, a factor that aids in drug delivery.38 Because of the strong interaction

between the silver surface and molecules containing thiol or amine (organic molecules, DNA, proteins, enzymes, etc), the surface of silver nanoparticles can be easily modified.38 (6) Silver nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial effects against a large number of bacterial species.44 The antibacterial mechanism has not been fully elucidated, but observations from recent studies shed light on the until interactions involved.45 It is believed that silver ions interact with 3 main components of the bacterial cell to produce a bactericidal effect: the peptidoglycan cell wall and the plasma membrane, bacterial (cytoplasmic) DNA46 and 47 and bacterial proteins,46 and especially enzymes involved in vital cellular processes such as the electron transport chain. (7) Bacterial resistance to elemental silver is extremely rare,45 emphasizing the presence of multiple bactericidal mechanisms acting in synergy. (8) Silver nanoparticles can be easily incorporated in cotton fabric and dressings and have significantly decreased wound-healing time by an average of 3.35 days and increased bacterial clearance from infected wounds, with no adverse effects observed for the dressing.48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 and 55 (9) Anti-inflammatory properties of silver nanoparticles also promote wound healing by reducing cytokine release,56 decreasing lymphocyte and mast cell infiltration.


of peptides was found to be effectively 100


of peptides was found to be effectively 100%. Peptides, listed in Table 1, were checked for helicity [23]. Samples of Toolkit peptide III-24 and CRPcys were dissolved at 2.5 mg mL−1 in cold 10 mM acetic acid. Peptides were held at 4 °C for 2 h, 1 d, 3 d, 14 d, or frozen (−20 °C) for 2 h, 1 d, 3 d, 14 d, or 80 d before immediate gel filtration analysis; a final sample was frozen for 14 d but thawed ten times during that period, mimicking sequential sampling. The experiment was repeated, except that nitrogen was bubbled through the acetic acid for 2 min before using it to dissolve peptide. As peptides are normally stored at 4 °C, we also retrieved 9–48-month-old stock samples of CRPcys, GPPcys, Baf-A1 GFOGERcys, II-56, III-04 and III-24, all kept at 1 mg mL−1 in 10 mM acetic acid. Samples were analyzed using mass-spectrometry, gel filtration, and

reduced cysteine quantified using Ellman’s reagent, 5,5′-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (Sigma D8130) [2]. The heterobifunctional reagent SPDP (Sigma P3415) was dissolved learn more in dry ethanol (50 mM), added to 3 mM peptide pre-dissolved in 0.1 M NaHCO3 (1.5 equiv.), and the mixture flushed with N2 gas. After 1 h, peptide was dialyzed overnight at 4 °C in 0.01 M acetic acid (one change), stored at 4 °C or freeze-dried and stored at −80 °C. Peptide III-24 (2.5 mg mL−1) was dissolved in 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.4 containing 2 mM TCEP, heated briefly to 70 °C and allowed to fold for 18 h overnight at 4 °C. It was filtered and loaded into a DynaPro Titan DLS instrument pre-equilibrated at 4 °C. The sample was probed at 4–50 °C, being equilibrated at each temperature for 5 min. Data was handled as previously described [17] and the hydrodynamic radius in nm used to calculate a predicted molecular

weight as appropriate for different polymers: a rod-like triple helix, an aggregate of triple helices, or a denatured single chain. We did not observe any collagenous gel formation. Peptide cross-linking and helicity was measured by preparing 800 μL samples at 0.25 mg mL−1 in 10 mM phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and loading onto a Bio-sep Sec-S2000 Gel filtration column (300 mm × 21.2 mm, 5 μM bead size, 14.5 nm average pore size) at 10 °C, equilibrated in the same buffer. Running isocratically, the eluant was monitored at 214 nm. PDK4 For peptide III-24, the column was additionally run at 40 °C to investigate the increased stability conferred by cross-linking, and peptide III-24, III-04, GPPcys, and GFOGERcys, were additionally sampled at 60 °C to obtain a peptide polymer profile (Suppl. Table S1b). Overlapping gel filtration sample peaks derived from different peptide polymers require mathematical deconvolution into components. Three major effects describe a gel filtration peak: first, bead pore size and homogeneity (r ± σ, Fig. 2a, Suppl. Section 2.10); second, diffusion and inhomogeneity of flow, using the axial dispersion coefficient, L ( Fig. 2b and Suppl.

To investigate our hypothesis, we examined the effect of uPA defi

To investigate our hypothesis, we examined the effect of uPA deficiency on the outcome of transient episodes of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)–induced colitis in BALB/c mice. The DSS administration protocol we used leads neither to overt chronic colitis nor to colon cancer when applied to genetically intact BALB/c mice. However, it does lead to the induction of preneoplastic epithelial changes [31]. Using this experimental setting, we

found that the mice lacking uPA, in contrast to their wild-type ALK inhibitor (WT) counterparts, were predisposed to adenomatous polyp formation. The colonic epithelial preneoplasia in these mice evolved into adenomatous polyps on the basis of a significantly altered mucosal inflammatory milieu, which was characterized by more neutrophils and macrophages, less regulatory T cells (Treg), significantly upregulated cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α (ΤΝF-α), and IL-10, and lower levels of active TGF-β1. Our results challenge the dogma according to which uPA is viewed solely as a tumor promoter. Specific pathogen-free certified C.129S2-Plau/J

uPA-deficient (uPA−/−) mice and background strain-matched control BALB/cJ WT mice were purchased this website from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME) and bred in-house to provide animals for the experiments. Mice were kept in bio-containment facilities in static micro-isolator cages, fed with sterilized regular

mouse chow, and given sterilized water. Helicobacter-free status of the mice was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Helicobacter genus–specific primers in fecal and gut mucosa samples as previously described [32]. All experimental procedures were approved by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and licensed by the competent National Veterinary Dichloromethane dehalogenase Administration authorities (License No. 13/11197/11.09.08). A total of 130 (66 uPA−/− and 64 WT) male mice were used. Experiments were performed in three replications to achieve a total number of 11 to 24 mice per experimental group. For the induction of chronic colitis, 3.5% DSS (molecular weight: 36-50 kDa; MP Biomedicals Inc, Cleveland, OH) was given in the drinking water of 8- to 10-week-old mice for 1 week followed by 1 week of regular water. This cycle was repeated three times. uPA−/− and WT mice were either treated with DSS or remained untreated. Mice were killed either at 7 months (first experiment—long term) or at 1 week (second experiment—short term) after DSS treatment. Numbers of mice per experimental group for each experiment were as follows: first experiment: uPA−/− (n = 11), WT (n = 11), uPA−/− + DSS (n = 11), WT + DSS (n = 11); second experiment: uPA−/− (n = 20), WT (n = 19), uPA−/− + DSS (n = 24), WT + DSS (n = 23). Mice were killed with an overdose of isoflurane, weighted, and necropsied.

Regardless of medium and cell line, growth kinetics and mAb produ

Regardless of medium and cell line, growth kinetics and mAb production of CHO cell lines in AZD9291 concentration 24DW plates was comparable to those grown in shake flasks (Fig. 1). As shown in Fig. 2, cell viabilities were maintained above 80% on Day

7 of culture for all cell lines in both shake flask and 24DW plates. These results indicate that 24DW plates may simulate the performance and dynamics of shake flask and can be used for cell culture process development studies. In order to assess well-to-well variation, CHO line 3 was cultured in all wells of a 24DW plate in a basal medium supplemented with 3 g/L of PP3 peptone. Samples were collected on Day 4 and 7 for assessment of growth. As shown in Table 1, the percent coefficient of variation (%CV) for VCD and viability was <10%, which was consistent with the shake flask culture system (<15%) as observed in our laboratory (data not shown). As shown in Table 2, growth data was uniform across 3-Methyladenine nmr the plate on various days of culture

and edge effect was not observed. Protein production was determined on the last day of culture and %CV for protein production was less than 5% for entire plate (Table 3). Together, these results show well-to-well consistency and lack of edge effect in 24DW cultures with Duetz sandwich-covers. To assess plate-to-plate variation, a peptone titration study was performed in three 24DW plates with CHO line 5 as described in Materials and Methods. Each plate contained six different concentrations of TCY peptone in duplicate wells. Sample locations were identical across three plates as shown in the plate map (Table 4). Samples were collected and analyzed for growth (Day 5) and production (Day 7). In Fig. 3, growth and production data is presented in a multivariate charts, where each panel represents a plate. Peptone showed a dose dependent effect on growth and protein production in all plates. All three see more plates did not show significant differences in mean VCD or production, indicating that the average response was similar across plates, regardless of titration point. Two

way ANOVA analyses were performed to determine the effect of plates and titration on growth. There was a significant difference among titration points (P = 0.00) while plate effect was insignificant (P < 0.081). These results demonstrate 24DW plate-to-plate consistency. Common strategies for enhancing cell performance for biologics production include batch or fed batch supplementation with peptone and/or CD supplements to provide sufficient nutrition. Studies were performed to assess the applicability of 24DW plates for batch and fed batch processes and to determine the correlation between 24DW plate and shake flask culture systems. To compare the performance of 24DW plates and shake flasks in a batch culture process, CHO line 4 was grown in both culture systems in the presence of various concentrations of PP3 peptone. Samples were collected on various days of culture and data is shown (Fig.

Immunoreactive bands were visualized using a chemiluminescence re

Immunoreactive bands were visualized using a chemiluminescence reagent (Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire, UK), followed by autoradiography. β-actin was used as the loading control. Densitometry of various analyte proteins and their respective loading controls from the same blot was performed using Image J 1.43 (NIH) software. Relative optical density was calculated by

dividing the densitometry of analyte(s) protein with the respective loading control. The levels of BPDE-DNA adducts were detected by immunohistochemical staining for BPDE-DNA adducts in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded 5 μm tissue sections as described previously [14]. Sections were incubated with anti-BPDE antibody (1:30

dilution). Detection was done using Vectastain ABC kit (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA). Diaminobenzidine learn more (DAB) was employed as the chromogenic substrate, and slides were counterstained with Mayer’s haematoxylin. Images were captured with Zeiss Microscope (Imager Z1) to which an Axiocam MRc5 digital C59 wnt nmr camera was attached. Quantitative analysis of the images (magnification X 400) was performed by IHC profiler [15], which is an open source plug-in for the quantitative evaluation and automated scoring of immunohistochemistry images of tissue samples. This modified digital image analysis is based on protocols adopted earlier [16]. IHC photomicrographs were used for developing semi-automated analysis protocol, namely IHC profiler [15]. As a first step, a color de-convolution plug-in was used to un-mix the pure DAB and haematoxylin stained areas that left a complimentary image. The pixel intensities of separated DAB images range from 0 to 255. Value 0 represents the darkest shade whereas 255 represents the lightest shade of the DAB brown color in the image. To select the DAB-stained (brown) nuclei, the threshold feature of the Image J 1.43 (NIH) software was used. Further to assign an automated percentage of pure DAB staining patterns in the nucleus, a macro was developed and plugged in the Image J 1.43 (NIH) software to obtain an automated counting

of the pixel wise percentage contribution of high, medium and low positive pixels/intensity in an image i.e. the number of pixels of a specific intensity value PJ34 HCl vs. their respective intensity zone. For measurement of BPDE-DNA adducts [similar areas of tissue sections (mm2) and number of cells (∼800 cells/section/animal)], total intensity (%) [of nuclei containing percentage of high, medium and low intensity] was analyzed within different treatment groups. However, apoptosis was measured in terms of total apoptotic nuclei intensity as well as percentage of apoptotic positive and negative cells in similar areas of tissue sections (mm2) and number of cells (∼800 cells/section/animal) in different treatment groups.

For reasons of simplicity, the major carbon flux necessary to bui

For reasons of simplicity, the major carbon flux necessary to build GDC-0941 mw algal cell walls was ignored in this review, but there should be differences comparing the silicified cell walls of diatoms compared with organic walls of other microalgae [51]. Triacylglycerol

(TAG) is produced from diacylglycerol (DAG) in microalgae through two major routes: the Kennedy Pathway involving transfer of acyl-CoA units onto DAG, catalyzed by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), and an acyl-CoA-independent pathway in which acyl groups are transferred from phospholipids, catalyzed by phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) [52]. Analysis of DGATs showed differences in the number GSK458 mw and types of isoforms present, even within individual algal lineages [53].

Attempts to manipulate DGATs for increased lipid production have had little success [54], suggesting that the acyl-CoA-independent route may deserve more consideration as a contributor than previously thought. Our initial analysis found different numbers of PDAT isoforms between microalgal species, implying that this pathway may be as complex across algal lineages as DGAT and the Kennedy pathway. TAG biosynthesis has long been thought to occur predominantly in the ER, however recently it was shown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that a plastid-localized process may contribute HAS1 [ 55 and 56]. Isoprenoid molecules are important precursors for generation of biofuels [57 and 58]. Two major pathways exist for isoprenoid biosynthesis in algae, the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway using acetyl-CoA, and the plastidic methylerythritolphosphate (MEP) pathway, which is glyeraldehyde-3P and pyruvate dependent [59•]. Chlorophytes have only the MEP pathway, but diatoms additionally have the MVA pathway (Figure 3). The interplay of precursor synthesis and regulation of both pathways is complex with many unknowns [59•]. Specifically important

for metabolic engineering of improved and/or novel biofuels may be carbon partitioning between the isoprenoids and fatty acids. This review highlights the substantial differences in photosynthesis, metabolic networks, and intracellular organization of evolutionarily-distinct classes of microalgae as related to biofuel precursor molecule production. Given the presented examples, one cannot assume that the core carbon metabolism in diverse algal classes will be similar. To facilitate a broadly-informed development of algal biofuels, it will be necessary to use systems biology approaches coupled with biochemical characterization in detailed metabolic studies of examples from the different major algal lineages.

5 N preload, until failure using an Instron 8841 DynaMight™ Axial

5 N preload, until failure using an Instron 8841 DynaMight™ Axial Testing System (Instron Corp.; Canton, MA) with a 50 N load cell. The compressive load data were plotted against displacement data, which were normalized by the height of each vertebral body (apparent strain), to determine the yield and maximum strength, compressive stiffness, and energy to maximum loading. The yield point was determined by a 0.2% strain offset. Apparent stresses were estimated by normalizing the loads by the total cross-sectional bone area of each vertebral body. To determine whether the HFD affects immature versus mature mice differently, a two-way Selleck LBH589 analysis

of variance (ANOVA) was used to elucidate the effects of diet, age group and their interaction (diet × age group). The D’Agostino–Pearson normality test was performed on each metric, which supported that the data were consistent with a Gaussian distribution. A two-way ANOVA approach was used because the interactive effect describes whether the age groups were indeed affected differently

by the HFD. Next, the persistence of any HFD-induced deficits in bone structure or strength after diet correction was assessed by comparing HFD and HFD:LFD mice across the two age groups by two-way ANOVA. Considering that there is an effect of intra-group aging between the 12 and 24 week time points, the LGK-974 mouse HFD-fed groups were normalized to their age-matched lean controls for this analysis (HFD/LFD vs. HFD:LFD/LFD:LFD). Therefore, in this normalized analysis, a significant diet effect indicates that there is a difference in the relationship of HFD-fed mice to lean controls from before and after diet correction. When interactions in the two-way ANOVAs were statistically significant, Bonferroni’s post-hoc test was used to determine whether the differences due to diet were significant within each age group. Differences were deemed statistically significant when p < 0.05. As expected, 12 weeks on the HFD induced significant weight

gain (Fig. 1A) along with elevated fasting blood glucose Smoothened (Fig. 1B) and serum leptin levels (Fig. 1C) in both immature and mature age groups of male C57BL/6J mice. The mature mice gained significantly more weight than the immature mice and had significantly greater increases in fasting blood glucose levels, as evidenced by the significant interactive effects and post-hoc comparisons. The insignificantly different leptin concentrations in the HFD-fed mice across the two age groups suggest that similar levels of obesity were reached while on this diet. Micro-CT scans of the distal femur demonstrated a lower cancellous bone volume in the HFD mice than LFD controls (Figs. 2A,B), with significantly reduced trabecular BVF in HFD compared to LFD mice. A significantly greater reduction in BVF was observed in immature than mature mice (Fig.

saline: 2 ± 1%) [F (3, 17) = 53,07; p < 0 05], without changing h

saline: 2 ± 1%) [F (3, 17) = 53,07; p < 0.05], without changing hindlimb vascular resistance or blood flow ( Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). Prior injection of Dasatinib in vitro moxonidine (20 nmol/1 μl) i.c.v. alone or combined with yohimbine (320 nmol/2 μl) did not modify the pressor response (18 ± 4 and 16 ± 3 mmHg, respectively), the tachycardia (12 ± 4 and 13 ± 3 bpm, respectively), the increase in SM vascular resistance

(20 ± 4% and 19 ± 4%, respectively) and the reduction of blood flow (−10 ± 4% and −12 ± 3%, respectively) produced by i.c.v. pilocarpine (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). The baseline MAP and HR immediately before yohimbine or vehicle injections in each group of rats are presented in Table 1. The present results show that central injections of pilocarpine reduce SSG vascular resistance and the increase MAP, HR and mesenteric vascular resistance. Contrary to the reduction in the salivary gland vascular resistance, the combination of moxonidine and pilocarpine injected i.c.v. increased SSG vascular resistance, an effect abolished by the previous injection

of yohimbine i.c.v. The changes in mesenteric vascular resistance, MAP and HR produced by pilocarpine i.c.v. were not altered by the central injection of moxonidine. Hindlimb vascular resistance was not affected by either treatment. These results suggest that the activation this website of central α2-adrenoceptors may oppose to the effects of central cholinergic receptor activation in the SSG vascular resistance. The effects produced by i.c.v. injection of pilocarpine on MAP, HR and on SSG and mesenteric resistances were similar to those produced by peripheral injections of pilocarpine, which reinforces the suggestion that pilocarpine injected peripherally may act centrally to reduce SSG vascular resistance and to increase MAP, HR and mesenteric vascular resistance.6 and 10 In addition to the central effects, pilocarpine injected

peripherally may also produce SSG vasodilation by acting Tenofovir nmr directly in the salivary glands. In spite of this direct effect on salivary glands, moxonidine injected i.c.v. combined with pilocarpine injected intravenously also increased SSG vascular resistance,10 similar to the effects of moxonidine combined with pilocarpine i.c.v. (present results). Moxonidine injected i.c.v. alone also increases SSG vascular resistance,10 which suggests that the activation of central α2-adrenoceptors overcomes the effects central cholinergic activation resulting in increased SSG vascular resistance when pilocarpine is combined with moxonidine both injected i.c.v. The importance and the involvement of the central α2-adrenoceptors in the inhibition of salivation were shown previously by injecting clonidine intracisternally in cats that received electrical stimulation of brainstem parasympathetic nuclei.19 The effect of clonidine was inhibited by prior intracisternal injection of yohimbine.

According to Teixeira et al (2007), this particular behavior can

According to Teixeira et al. (2007), this particular behavior can be attributed selleck compound to the fact that sucrose has

a higher number of OH groups than other sugars and, therefore, is more hydrophilic and is a more efficient plasticizing agent. In the second phase of the work, as can be observed in Table 3, an increase of clay and glycerol contents caused a decrease of TS. For each content of clay nanoparticles, an increase of glycerol content from 0.75 g to 1.25 g caused a significant decrease of TS (P < 0.05). The same tendency can be observed for each glycerol content: an increase of clay nanoparticles content decreases significantly the TS of the films (P < 0.05). The regression analysis applied on results, using the response surface methodology, Talazoparib cell line indicated that both glycerol (G) and clay nanoparticles (C) content, as well as their interaction, influenced significantly this property and the fitted model, in real values is (r2 = 72%): equation(4) TS=(5.62−1.83×G+21×C−28×G×C)±0.59(0.75≤G≤1.25)(0.00≤C≤0.10)wherein

TS is the tensile strength of films [MPa]; G is the glycerol content [g/100 g of filmogenic solution]; and C is the clay nanoparticles content [g/100 g of filmogenic solution]. As can be observed in Fig. 2(a), higher contents of glycerol and clay yield films with lower TS. For films formulated without clay nanoparticles, the E decreased as glycerol content increased, as Dichloromethane dehalogenase expected, confirming the results obtained in the first phase. An opposite effect was observed for films produced with clay nanoparticles, i.e., for each clay content, with increasing glycerol content, E of the films increased. This effect was more pronounced and significant (P < 0.05)

with higher clay nanoparticles content (0.10 g/100 g). ANOVA applied on results of water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability coefficient indicated that the glycerol content influenced significantly these properties (P < 0.05), since a rise in glycerol content caused an increase in both permeabilities ( Table 2). As mentioned earlier, glycerol is a relatively small hydrophilic molecule, which can be entrapped between adjacent polymeric chains, decreasing intermolecular attractions and increasing molecular mobility, facilitating migration of water vapor and oxygen molecules ( Rodríguez, Osés, Ziani, & Maté, 2006). Similar tendencies have been reported for BF based on potato starch (Rodríguez et al., 2006 and Talja et al., 2007), yam starch (Mali, Grossmann, García, Martino, & Zaritzky, 2004), corn starch (Bertuzzi et al., 2007) and cassava starch (Alves et al., 2007 and Chillo et al., 2008). In Table 3, the positive influence caused by the addition of clay nanoparticles on water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability coefficient can be noticed.