The GSTT1 and GSTM1 variants genotyped with multiplex-PCR, wherea

The GSTT1 and GSTM1 variants genotyped with multiplex-PCR, whereas GSTP1 polymorphisms were determined with PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism). We observed a lack of any association with GSTT1 (p=0.45, OR=2.25, 95% CI=1.71-2.22) and GSTP1 (p=0.92 and 0.99) genes. There was a significant positive association with null alleles of the GSTM1 (p=0.000, OR=2.24, 95% CI =1.46-3.42) gene. Combined analysis of the three genotypes demonstrated further increase in the risk of symptomatic BPH (p=0.009, OR=8.31 95% CI=1.71-40.4). Polymorphisms of GST genes were not associated with rates for responders and non-responders. GSTM1 deletion is significantly associated with the increased risk of symptomatic BPH, but none of the GST polymorphisms appears associated with response to standard BPH therapy.”
“Purpose Retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) metastasis is a poor prognosticator in oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET) on the diagnosis and predictor analysis of RPLN in these cancers.\n\nMethods We enrolled patients with oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers before receiving definitive treatment. Staging was performed by F-18-FDG PET and conventional imaging modalities. Differences in RPLN

metastasis detection rates were compared. Independent BVD-523 molecular weight predictors of RPLN involvement were also assessed.\n\nResults

A total of 224 patients were investigated. RPLN involvement was identified in 17% of the study patients. In 18% of the 38 patients with RPLN involvement, RPLN metastases were identified by F-18-FDG PET only. Only 4% of the patients with oropharyngeal cancer and RPLN metastasis were not identified without the use of F-18-FDG PET, compared with 46% of patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. In multivariate analysis, posterior pharyngeal wall tumor (P = 0.02) or the presence of ipsilateral level V lymph node metastasis (P = 0.025) were independent predictors of RPLN involvement in hypopharyngeal cancer. In oropharyngeal cancer, no factors retained their independent significance.\n\nConclusion We concluded Selleckchem IBET762 that F-18-FDG PET is helpful in detecting RPLN metastasis in hypopharyngeal cancer. The presence of ipsilateral level V lymph node metastasis or tumors originating from the posterior pharyngeal wall can predict RPLN involvement in hypopharyngeal cancer and might represent an indication for elective irradiation of this nodal basin. However, regional lymph node involvement is not an independent predictor in oropharyngeal cancer. The predictor for RPLN metastasis seems to change after the introduction of PET. Nucl Med Commun 31: 260-265 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Ecological indicators are science-based tools used to assess how human activities have impacted environmental resources.

By contrast, genomic structural variation seems to play a smaller

By contrast, genomic structural variation seems to play a smaller part in bipolar disorder Belinostat supplier than it does in schizophrenia. Together, these genetic findings suggest directions for future studies to delineate the aetiology and pathogenesis of bipolar disorder, indicate the need to re-evaluate our diagnostic classifications, and might eventually pave the way for major improvements in clinical management.”
“E6 viral

oncoproteins are key players in epithelial tumors induced by papillomaviruses in vertebrates, including cervical cancer in humans. E6 proteins target many host proteins by specifically interacting with acidic LxxLL motifs. We solved the crystal structures of bovine (BPV1) and human (HPV16) papillomavirus E6 proteins bound to LxxLL peptides from the focal adhesion protein paxillin and the ubiquitin ligase E6AP, respectively. In both E6 proteins, AP24534 two zinc domains and a linker helix form a basic-hydrophobic pocket, which captures helical LxxLL motifs in a way compatible with other interaction modes. Mutational inactivation of the LxxLL binding pocket disrupts the oncogenic activities of both E6

proteins. This work reveals the structural basis of both the multifunctionality and the oncogenicity of E6 proteins.”
“In this study, an evaluation of the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and inhibitory action of the extract of unripe plantain flour on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) BIIB057 in vitro radical was carried out. Chemical analysis of the flour showed that it contained significant

quantities of dry matter (48.00 +/- 3.96%) and starch (31.10 +/- 0.44%) but was low in phenol (1.42 +/- 0.03%), protein (3.15 +/- 0.042%), ash (5.50 +/- 0.42%) and reducing sugar (0.064 +/- 0.001%) (p < 0.05). The antioxidant activity of the extract as determined by the quantities of peroxidase (52 +/- 0.00%) and reducing power tests indicated that the flour had a strong antioxidant activity while the percentage inhibition on DPPH radical was 78.57%. Analysis of the phytochemical compositions of the using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the gravimetric method of Harbone showed that it contained 1.58 +/- 0.04% tannin, 1.82 +/- 0.05% saponin, 1.37 +/- 0.05% alkaloid and 0.98 +/- 0.00% flavonoid. The unripe plantain flour was found to have good functional properties in addition as indicated by the values obtained for water solubility index (3.38 +/- 0.007%), water absorption capacity (1.25 +/- 0.35g/g) and bulk density (0.94 +/- 0.014gml(-1)). These findings suggest that unripe plantain could serve as a good source of natural antioxidants with free radical scavenging activity. In addition, it could have a wider utility in alcohol production, food and sugar industries and as a drug binder and disintegrant in pharmaceuticals.

Frequency of DRB1*11 allele group was significantly low while hap

Frequency of DRB1*11 allele group was significantly low while haplo-types DRB1*15/DQB1*06 and DRB1*10/DQB1*05 were significantly high in the patient population. CD11c, CD80 and CD83 expressions were high in the patient groups. CD11c expression was positively associated with viral load. CD86 expression was significantly low in the patients having DQB1*06 allele. Association of HLA-DRB1*11 and the emergence of DRB1*15/DQB1*06 and DRB1*10/DQB1*05 as susceptible haplotypes towards HEV infection is being

reported for the first time. Positive correlation Proteases inhibitor of CD11c with HEV viral load suggested that increased frequencies of the same might be associated with HEV replication. (c) 2012 American Erismodegib Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier

Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The NMR diffusometry technique, based on the measurement of the diffusion coefficient of a ligand in the absence and in the presence of its macromolecular partner, was used to study the affinity for human serum albumin (HSA) of four gadolinium complexes, potential or already used magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Diamagnetic lanthanum(III) ion or europium(III) ion, which has the advantage of shifting the NMR signals far away from those of the macromolecule, was used to avoid the excessive broadening of the NMR signals induced by the gadolinium(III) ion. Titration experiments, in which the HSA concentration was kept constant and the concentration of the europium or lanthanum chelate was varied, were performed to evaluate the association constant and the number of binding

sites. Some additional information about the kinetics of the exchange BGJ398 between the free and the bound chelate was also obtained. Competition experiments with ibuprofen and salicylate, which are ligands with a known affinity for the macromolecule and for which the binding site is known, were also performed to get information about the binding site of the contrast agents.”
“Mouse gene expression data are complex and voluminous. To maximize the utility of these data, they must be made readily accessible through databases, and those resources need to place the expression data in the larger biological context. Here we describe two community resources that approach these problems in different but complementary ways: BioGPS and the Mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD). BioGPS connects its large and homogeneous microarray gene expression reference data sets via plugins with a heterogeneous collection of external gene centric resources, thus casting a wide but loose net. GXD acquires different types of expression data from many sources and integrates these data tightly with other types of data in the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource, with a strong emphasis on consistency checks and manual curation.

SettingCenter for Tobacco Research and Intervention, Madi

\n\nSetting\n\nCenter for Tobacco Research and Intervention, Madison, Wisconsin.\n\nParticipants\n\nA total of 372 adult daily smokers who reported at least one stressful event and coping episode and provided post-quit data.\n\nMeasurements\n\nParticipants’ smoking, coping and affect were

assessed in near real time with multiple EMA reports using electronic diaries pre- and post-quit.\n\nFindings\n\nMulti-level models indicated that a single coping episode did not predict a change in smoking risk over the next 4 or 48 hours, but coping in men was associated with concurrent reports of increased smoking. Coping predicted improved positive and negative affect reported within 4 hours of coping, but these affective gains did not predict reduced likelihood of later smoking. Pre-quit coping frequency and gender moderated E7438 Selleckchem Ulixertinib post-quit stress coping relations with later positive affect. Men and those with greater pre-quit coping frequency reported greater gains in positive affect following post-quit coping.\n\nConclusions\n\nCoping responses early in a quit attempt may help smokers trying to quit feel better, but may not help them stay smoke-free.”
“Mandible fractures are classified depending on their location. In clinical practice, locations are grouped into regions at different scales according to anatomical, functional

and esthetic considerations. Implant design aims at defining the optimal implant for each patient. Emerging population-based techniques analyze the anatomical variability across a population and perform statistical analysis to identify an optimal set of implants. Current efforts are focused on finding clusters of patients with similar characteristics and designing one implant for each cluster.

Ideally, the description of anatomical variability is directly connected to the clinical regions. This connection is what we present click here here, by introducing a new registration method that builds upon a tree of locally affine transformations that describes variability at different scales. We assess the accuracy of our method on 146 CT images of femurs. Two medical experts provide the ground truth by manually measuring six landmarks. We illustrate the clinical importance of our method by clustering 43 CT images of mandibles for implant design. The presented method does not require any application-specific input, which makes it attractive for the analysis of other multiscale anatomical structures. At the core of our new method lays the introduction of a new basis for stationary velocity fields. This basis has very close links to anatomical substructures. In the future, this method has the potential to discover the hidden and possibly sparse structure of the anatomy. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: How the yeast proteins Nrd1 and Nab3 provoke transcription termination is poorly understood.

The evaluation of health-related quality of life showed that comb

The evaluation of health-related quality of life showed that combining pertuzumab with docetaxel and trastuzumab compared to placebo have no detrimental effect with adding pertuzumab.\n\nConclusion:\n\nPertuzumab is the first HER dimerization inhibitor with a mechanism of action complementary to trastuzumab. Studies with

anti-HER2 combination treatments indicate that the use of more than one HER2-targeted therapy was superior to one of these agents alone. Pertuzumab has produced impressive anti-tumor activity in combination with trastuzumab. There are ongoing studies with pertuzumab with an increasing tendency towards moving the study of these agents to earlier stages of the disease, namely in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting.”
“The selleckchem Fusarium disease, caused

by Fusarium oxysporum has been observed in different areas of Iran in recent years. Current biocontrol studies have confirmed the effectiveness of the Trichoderma species against many fungal phytopathogens. In this study, biocontrol effects of Trichoderma AS1842856 concentration isolates alone and in combination were evaluated against F. oxysporum pathogen. This study shows the ability of Trichoderma harzianum isolates which had been isolated from soil and as such, lentil roots were compared to the combination of the three fungal lentil Fusarium root. Three isolates (T. harzianum) T1, (Trichoderma asperellum) T2, (Trichoderma virens) T3, were selected base on good antagonist effect after screening tests for antifungal combination effects against Fusarium disease pathogen in greenhouse. In dual culture tests, three (T1, T2 and T3) isolates covered and colonized the colony of the pathogen. In other experiment, three (T1, T2 and T3) isolates covered and colonized the colony of the other Trichoderma isolates. Microscopic studies revealed hyphal coiling (hyperparasitism) of isolates T1 and T2 around F.

oxysporum hyphae. selective HDAC inhibitors Volatile metabolites of all isolates reduced the mycelial growth of fusarium pathogen. T1 and T2 isolates and their combination were more effective than other treatments in controlling the disease, such that it reduced disease severity from 20 to 44% and increased the dry weight from 23 to 52%. All treatments showed significant differences with control plants.”
“Interactions of Nafion (Naf) ionomer with water, aqueous ethanol (EA), aqueous isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and aqueous ammonia were investigated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)infrared (IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and computational modeling studies. Microstructural features by ATRIR revealed the existence of hydrophilic interaction of Naf with all solvents. The Naf membranes formed hydrogen bonds with water, aqueous EA, and IPA.

Groups Of low fertility plants were fertilized with 100 ml of cal

Groups Of low fertility plants were fertilized with 100 ml of calcium nitrate solution for 3 days a week for a period of 3 weeks starting at various times before and at the beginning of the SD period, as well as at different times during the SD period. All plants, including SD and long day (LD) control plants, received a weekly fertilization with a low concentration complete fertilizer Solution throughout the experiment. Leaf at-ea. fresh and dry matter increments of leaves, crowns and roots, as well as leaf chlorophyll concentration (SPAD Values) Bucladesine concentration were monitored during the experimental period. A general enhancement of growth

took place at all times of N fertilization. This was paralleled by an increase in leaf chlorophyll concentration, indicating that the control plants were selleck in a mild state of N deficiency. When N fertilization was started 2 weeks before beginning of the SD period, flowering was delayed by 7 days, and this was gradually changed to an advancement of 8 days when the same treatment was started 3 weeks after the first SD. The amount of flowering was generally

increased by N fertilization although the effect varied greatly with the time of N application. The greatest flowering enhancement Occurred when N fertilization started I week after the first SD when the number of flowering crowns and the number of inflorescences per plant were more than doubled compared with the SD control, while fertilization 2 weeks before SD had no significant effect on these parameters. check details Importantly, the total number of crowns per plant was not affected by N fertilization at any time, indicating that enhancement of flowering was not due to an increase in potential inflorescence sites. No flowering took place in the control plants in LD. Possible physiological mechanisms involved and practical applications of the findings are discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in the hippocampus results in age-dependent impaired cognition and altered synaptic plasticity suggesting a possible model for examining the role of oxidative stress in senescent neurophysiology. However, it is unclear if SOD1 overexpression involves an altered redox environment and a decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) synaptic function reported for aging animals. Viral vectors were used to express SOD1 and green fluorescent protein (SOD1 + GFP), SOD1 and catalase (SOD1 + CAT), or GFP alone in the hippocampus of middle-aged (17 months) male Fischer 344 rats. We confirm that SOD1 + GFP and SOD1 + CAT reduced lipid peroxidation indicating superoxide metabolites were primarily responsible for lipid peroxidation. SOD1 + GFP impaired learning, decreased glutathione peroxidase activity, decreased glutathione levels, decreased NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses, and impaired long-term potentiation.

Fabricated hybrid inorganic/organic nanopapers are characterized

Fabricated hybrid inorganic/organic nanopapers are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, MTS mechanical testing, UV-vis spectroscopy, colorimeter and semiconductor analyzer. Synthesized photochromic hybrid nanopapers modified with vanadium and titanium oxide nanoparticles can find potential application as sensitive find more displays, biosensors and other optical devices.”
“Background: Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is associated with preterm delivery and with neonatal morbidity and mortality.

Because HCA is usually subclinical, histologic examination of the placenta is essential for confirmatory diagnosis. In the present study, the correlations between subclinical HCA and relevant clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed.\n\nMethods: This was a retrospective study. We reviewed the placental histopathologic findings and the charts of patients who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit after delivery and

their mothers between January 2007 and March 2008. A total of 77 preterm infants [gastational age (GA): 32.2 +/- 3.4 weeks, birth CT99021 mw weight (BW): 1,718 +/- 554 g] were categorized as group A with histologic evidence of placental inflammation (n=27) or group B without histologic evidence of placental inflammation (n=50). Placental histology was studied to identify the presence of inflammatory states such as chorioamnionitis, funisitis and deciduitis. Laboratory parameters including complete blood count, differential count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level of mothers and initial arterial blood gas, glucose level and mean blood pressure of the infants were documented. Gestational age, Apgar score, history of prolonged

premature rupture of membrane (prolonged PROM), gestational diabetes mellitus, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Danusertib solubility dmso pregnancy-induced hypertension and signs of pre-eclampsia were also collected as clinical parameters. All data were analyzed using independent t tests and Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate.\n\nResults: Group A newborns had a significantly lower gestational age (30.8 +/- 4.1 weeks vs. 33.0 +/- 2.6 weeks, p < 0.05) and higher CRP level (0.56 +/- 0.92 mg/dL vs. 0.12 +/- 0.14 mg/dL, p < 0.05), together with higher maternal WBC count (13,002 +/- 4,344/mu L vs. 10,850 +/- 3,722/mu L, p < 0.05) and higher rate of prolonged PROM [14/27 (51.85%) vs. 8/37 (21.62%), p < 0.05] compared with group B newborns.\n\nConclusion: We found that HCA was significantly correlated with lower gestational age, higher CRP level of preterm infants, higher maternal WBC count, and a higher rate of prolonged PROM. Our results demonstrate a significant association between HCA with an elevated CRP level in preterm infants. These findings further confirmed the association between maternal inflammation and preterm deliveries.

Since osteoblast adhesion and proliferation are essential prerequ

Since osteoblast adhesion and proliferation are essential prerequisites for a successful Rabusertib implant in vivo, these results provide evidence that Ti and TiZr alloys after appropriate surface modification are promising biomaterials for hard tissue replacement. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

To evaluate the psychometric attributes of the Spanish version of the Quality of Life-Alzheimer’s Disease Scale (QoL-AD) in institutionalized patients and family caregivers in Spain.\n\nMethod: 101 patients (88.1% women; mean age, 83.2 +/- 6.3) with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (n = 82) and mixed dementia (n 19) and their closest family caregivers. Patient-related variables included severity of dementia, cognitive status, perceived general health, quality of life, behavior, apathy, depression, and functional status. QoL-AD acceptability, reliability, and construct validity

were analyzed.\n\nResults: The mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 7.2 +/- 6.1 and Global Deterioration Scale was: stage four (4%); five (21.2%); six (34.3%); and seven (40.4%). Both, QoL-AD patient version (QoL-ADp) (n = 40; MMSE = 12.0 +/- 4.5) and QoL-AD Blasticidin S order caregiver version (QoL-ADc) (n = 101) lacked significant floor and ceiling effects and the Cronbach alpha index was 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The corrected item-total correlation was 0.11-0.68 (QoL-ADc) and 0.28-0.84 (QoL-ADp). Stability was satisfactory for QoL-ADp (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.83)

but low for QoL-ADc (ICC = 0.51); the standard error of measurement was 2.72 and 4.69. Construct validity was moderate/high for QoL-ADc (QUALID=-0.43; EQ-5D = 0.65), but lower for QoL-ADp. No significant correlations were observed between QoL-ADp and patient variables or QoL-ADc. A low to high association (r = 0.18-0.55) was obtained between QoL-ADc and patient-related measures of neuropsychiatric, function, and cognitive status.\n\nConclusion: Differences in their psychometric attributes, and discrepancy between them, were found for QoL-ADp and QoL-ADc. In patients with AD and advanced dementia, the JNJ-26481585 supplier QoL perceived by the patient could be based on a construct that is different from the traditional QoL construct.”
“Objective. To evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrists and finger joints and an analysis of serologic autoantibodies are clinically meaningful for the subsequent development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA).\n\nMethods. A total of 129 patients with UA, a disease status formally confirmed by a rheumatologist over a period of at least 1 year, were included. Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-enhanced MRI of both wrists and finger joints and serologic variables were examined upon admission to our Early Arthritis Clinic at Nagasaki University. After a prospective followup of 1 year, a predictive value for the development of RA was determined for each patient.

Results: Treatment with EMD yielded a mean CAL gain of 3 4 +/

\n\nResults: Treatment with EMD yielded a mean CAL gain of 3.4 +/- 1.0 mm (p < 0.001) and 2.9 +/- 1.4 mm (p < 0.001) at 1 and 10 years, respectively. GTR resulted in a mean CAL gain of 3.2 +/- 1.4 (p < 0.001) at 1 year and 2.8 +/- 1.2 mm (p < 0.001) at 10 years. Mean CAL gain in the EMD+GTR group was of 3.3 +/- 1.1 mm (p < 0.001) and 2.9 +/- 1.2 mm (p < 0.001) at 1 and 10 years, respectively. Treatment with OFD demonstrated a mean CAL gain of 2.0 +/- 1.2 mm (p < 0.01) at 1 year and 1.8 +/- 1.1 mm (p < 0.01) at 10 years. Compared with OFD, the three regenerative

treatments resulted in statistically significant (p < Akt molecular weight 0.05) higher CAL gain, at both 1 and 10 years. The CAL change between 1 and 10 years did not present statistically

significant differences in any of the four groups.\n\nConclusion: The present results indicate that the clinical outcomes obtained with all four approaches can be maintained over a period of 10 years.”
“G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK/Kir3) channels regulate cellular excitability and neurotransmission. In this study, we used biochemical and morphological techniques to analyze the cellular and subcellular distributions of GIRK channel subunits, as well as their interactions, in the mouse cerebellum. We found that GIRK1, GIRK2, and GIRK3 subunits co-precipitated with one another in the cerebellum and that GIRK subunit ablation was correlated with reduced expression levels of residual subunits. Using quantitative PD0332991 mouse RT-PCR and immunohistochemical approaches, we found that GIRK subunits exhibit overlapping but distinct expression patterns in various cerebellar neuron subtypes. GIRK1 and GIRK2 exhibited the most widespread and robust labeling in the cerebellum, with labeling particularly prominent in granule cells. A high degree of molecular

diversity in the cerebellar GIRK channel repertoire is suggested by labeling seen in less abundant neuron populations, including Purkinje neurons (GIRK1/GIRK2/GIRK3), basket cells (GIRK1/GIRK3), Golgi cells (GIRK2/GIRK4), stellate cells (GIRK3), and unipolar brush cells (GIRK2/GIRK3). Double-labeling immunofluorescence and electron microscopies showed that GIRK subunits were mainly found at post-synaptic sites. Altogether, our data support the existence of rich GIRK molecular and cellular diversity, and provide a necessary framework for functional studies aimed at delineating the contribution of GIRK channels to synaptic inhibition in the cerebellum.”
“The mechanical properties of self-assembled silver nanoparticle (Ag-NP) films at the air-liquid interface are studied using both visible light optics and x-ray scattering techniques. The response of such films to compression is compared with results from previously studied gold nanoparticle (Au-NP) films, showing many similarities, along with significant differences. Possible factors governing the stress response of nanoparticle films are discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics.

“Leaf litter decomposes on the surface of soil in natural

“Leaf litter decomposes on the surface of soil in natural systems and element transfers between litter and soil are commonly found. However, how litter and soil organic matter (SOM) interact to influence decomposition rate and nitrogen (N) release remains unclear.\n\nLeaf litter and mineral soil of top 0-5 cm from six forests were incubated separately, or together with litter on soil surface at 25 A degrees C for 346 days. Litter N remaining and soil respiration rate were repeatedly measured during incubation. GSK2879552 Litter carbon (C) and mass losses and mineral N concentrations

in litter and soil were measured at the end of incubation.\n\nNet N transfer from soil to litter was found in all litters when incubated with soil. Litter incubated with soil lost more C than litter incubated alone after 346 days. For litters with initial C: N ratios lower than

52, net N-min after 346 days was 100 % higher when incubated with soil than when incubated alone. Litter net N-min rate was negatively related to initial C: N ratio when incubated with soil but not when incubated alone. Soil respiration rate and net N-min rate did not differ between soil incubated with litter and soil incubated alone.\n\nWe Selleck PF-6463922 conclude that soils may enhance litter decomposition rate by net N transfer from soil to litter. Our results together with studies on litter mixture decomposition suggest that net N transfer between decomposing organic matter with different N status may be common

and may significantly influence decomposition and N release. The low net N-min rate during litter decomposition along with the small size of litter N pool compared to soil N pool suggest that SOM rather than decomposing litter is the major contributor to plant mineral N supply.”
“Although many recent studies have suggested that CDzr helper T cell (Th-cell) functions are well conserved among teleost fishes and mammals, there is little evidence that CDT’ Th-cells in fish are actually involved in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity during a secondary immune response. In the present study, adoptive transfer using clonal ginbuna crucian carp and crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV) was used to investigate the functions of CDT’ cells during humoral and cell-mediated immunity. With XR9576 regard to humoral immunity, transplanting CHNV-sensitized donor cells, containing OA(+) cells, into naive fish induced more rapid and stronger antibody production than by transplanting non-sensitized donor cells or sensitized donor cells lacking CIA(+) cells. During cell-mediated immunity, no significant differences were found in recipients that received sensitized cells regardless of whether the donor cells contained CD4+ cells, although recipients that received both sensitized donor cells (with and without CD4+ cells) exhibited more efficient cell-mediated cytotoxicity than those that received nonsensitized donor cells.