“Polysaccharide was testified to be the main component of Flammulina velutipes for inhibiting AChE activity in our preliminary study. Therefore, response surface methodology, based on Box-Behnken design, was used to optimize the ultrasonic extraction conditions
of F. velutipes polysaccharides (FVP). Four independent variables (ratio of water to raw material, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, and ultrasonic temperature) were taken into consideration. A quadratic model, adequate for reasonably predicting the yield of FVP, was constructed between ultrasonic conditions and yield of FVP. A yield of FVP of 8.33% was obtained under a modified condition (ratio of water to material of 25 ml/g, ultrasonic power of 620 W, ultrasonic time of 20 Selonsertib cell line min, and ultrasonic CP673451 clinical trial temperature of 45 degrees C). Subsequently, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) scavenging activity of FVP were determined. AChE inhibitory rate of 18.51% and DPPH scavenging rate of 61.24% were obtained at 0.6 mg/ml of FVP, indicating a good potential of FVP to enhance learning and cognitive ability. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the recommended first-line treatment for
staghorn stones. To achieve complete stone clearance, PCNL may require using multiple tracts. Objective: To evaluate outcome of PCNL in patients with staghorn calculi and its correlation with the number of tracts and stone features. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with staghorn renal stone who underwent PCNL were included in S3I-201 order the study. Perioperative and postoperative features were recorded. Correlation of the variables with number of tracts and stone size was assessed. Results: Mean age (+/- SD) was 49.6 +/- 14.7 years. Our patients were ASA class I. The mean cumulative stone burden was 365.9 +/- 156.5 mm(2). The mean number
of tracts was 2.4 (range: 1-7), and stone-free rate was 83%. The stone-free rate (p = 0.026) and hospital stay (p = 0.005) correlated with stone size, but not with number of tracts. Postoperative fever correlated with stone size (p = 0.017) and number of tracts (p = 0.037). Conclusion: PCNL using multiple tracts seem to be effective and safe in treatment of staghorn calculi. Most outcome measures correlated with stone size rather than number of tracts. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“This article provides an overview of the ethical issues associated with penile transplantation, a form of composite tissue allografting. There is only one reported case of human penile transplantation, and, as such, this technique is considered to be experimental. The ethical issues at stake involve both the graft donor and the graft recipient.