The results show that there was no significant difference in temp

The results show that there was no significant difference in temperature (F = 3.2, P = 0.09), Trichostatin A mw pH (F = 3.1, P = 0.09) or salinity (F = 0.1, P = 0.8) between the two sites during the study period. The surface water temperature at both sites increased gradually during the study period, whereas salinity decreased sharply until reaching the lowest level (26.5‰) on 3 June, coincident with the highest peak of H. akashiwo cells at site 1 ( Figure 3). The salinity rose again to more than 31‰ during the remaining part of the study period. In contrast, dissolved oxygen (F = 329.9, P < 0.001), NO3 (F = 2748.7, P < 0.001), NH4

(F = 1031, P < 0.001) and phosphate (F = 385.9, P < 0.001) concentrations varied significantly between the two sites. In general, nutrient concentrations (NH4, NO3 and PO4) were higher at the bloom site than at the non-bloom site ( Figure 4), indicating

their possible promotion of H. akashiwo bloom formation at the bloom site. The abundance of H. akashiwo at the bloom site increased markedly during the study, with the highest density (46 × 106 cells L− 1) obtained on 3 June ( Figure 4); it began to decline on 10 June and eventually crashed on 24 June, coinciding with the salinity buy JQ1 increase up to 40‰. The cell density of H. akashiwo correlated negatively with salinity (r = − 0.83) and pH (r = − 0.7), and positively with NH4 (r = 0.88), NO3 (r = 0.78) and PO4 (r = 0.86). The cell density of this alga was only weakly correlated with water temperature (r = 0.2), enough as the temperature did not vary significantly during the last three periods of the study ( Figure 3a). Chlorophyll a concentrations were higher at the bloom site than at the non-bloom site and correlated positively with H. akashiwo cell density (r = 0.87) at the bloom site. In addition to H. akashiwo cells, the bloom site contained 17 other algal species, but with low cell densities ( Table 1). Most of these algae are potentially toxic species of dinoflagellates (e.g. Alexandrium, Dinophysis, Gymnodinium), raphidophytes (e.g. Chattonella)

and cyanobacteria (e.g. Trichodesmium). Remarkably, all of these species except Chattonella had been recorded at this site before the H. akashiwo bloom appeared, and began to disappear gradually as the cell density of H. akashiwo increased ( Table 1). Thereafter, these species re-appeared at the site when the bloom collapsed on 24 June. In contrast, the raphidophyte Chattonella was associated with the Heterosigma bloom during the study period. During this study, the raphidophyte H. akashiwo was toxic to A. salina. As shown in Table 2, both the aqueous and methanol extracts of H. akashiwo blooms were toxic towards A. salina with a significant difference in LC50 values (F = 15.2–62.5, P = 0.01–0.001): the methanol extracts were more toxic (LC50 = 9.14–9.

g the review by Fennel et al 2008),

current Baltic Sea

g. the review by Fennel et al. 2008),

current Baltic Sea biogeochemical models mainly use bulk formulations to describe nutrient fluxes at the sediment-water interface. To capture the denitrification dynamics selleck compound in the Gulf of Riga, where sediments can be subject to both temporal hypoxia as well as high nitrate concentrations, a model parameterisation is needed that takes into account the fact that the nitrate required for denitrification is either derived from the nitrification of mineralised ammonium within the sediments by coupled nitrification – denitrification (Vanderborght et al. 1977, Jenkins & Kemp 1984) or is provided by diffusion from the overlying water column (Vanderborght & Billen 1975). In the current study, therefore, we have not only assessed the potential consequences of hypoxia on the biogeochemical cycle in the Gulf of Riga by studying nutrient flux dynamics selleck chemical under various oxygen conditions; we have also used the experimental results to adjust the representation of sediment-water fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus in a biogeochemical model of the Gulf of Riga. The Gulf of Riga is a semi-enclosed sub-basin of the Baltic Sea with maximum and mean depths of 62 and 20 m respectively (Yurkovskis et al. 1993). Water exchange with the Baltic Sea occurs

through the Irbe Strait in the north-west and the Suur Strait in the north, which are both sufficiently shallow to restrict the water exchange to the low saline surface water of the Baltic Proper. The surface water circulation in the Gulf is predominantly oriented anticlockwise (Reigstad et al. 1999). Freshwater is supplied mainly by the major rivers entering the southern and eastern parts of Atezolizumab datasheet the Gulf (Tamminen & Seppälä 1999). The bottom sediments in the Gulf of Riga are dominated by fine material (< 0.01 mm) at depths exceeding 27 m. Its main sediment accumulation zone is located at depths > 40 m, so accumulation bottoms are found mostly in the southern and south-western parts of the Gulf (Carman et al. 1996). The current study was carried

out in a sediment accumulation area in the southern Gulf of Riga, at monitoring station 119 (depth 42 m; 57°18′N; 23°51′E) (Figure 1). The total carbon and total nitrogen concentrations in the surface sediments in this area are 5.1 and 0.5 mmol g−1 dry weight respectively. Considerable seasonal variations of temperature and oxygen concentration are characteristic of the near-bottom water of the Gulf of Riga. During autumn and winter the water column is well mixed (Berzinsh 1980, Omstedt & Axell 2003). Vertical temperature gradients begin to develop during spring and the water column remains thermally stratified throughout summer and early autumn. As a result, near-bottom oxygen concentrations in the central part of the Gulf generally increase until the onset of thermal stratification in spring as a function of temperature- controlled solubility.

Furthermore, a very important factor for developing iron deficien

Furthermore, a very important factor for developing iron deficiency after blood donation is the frequency of donation. The

Council of Europe recommends Cyclopamine datasheet no more than 4 whole blood donations in female and 6 donations in male donors per year [51]. Some European blood establishments have even lower total numbers of whole blood donations (e.g. in Switzerland 3 donations per year in female and 4 in male donors). With these intervals, the risk of depletion of iron stores should be acceptable in the vast majority of healthy volunteer donors. However, many blood donors still develop iron deficiency or even iron deficient anemia. Considering the shrinking of the donor pool that many blood donation facilities are going to face in the next years,

the interest on preventing significant iron deficiency and in particular iron deficiency anemia is increasing. Currently there are many groups investigating laboratory tests and/or prediction models to minimize donor deferral due to low hemoglobin, one of the main reasons leading to a loss of blood donors. At some blood donation centers, larger hematology analyzers and other lab tests such as ferritin or zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) are available. However the added value of these additional tests to predict iron deficiency or low hemoglobin deferral click here at the next intended donation is not yet established. Ferritin is used in some blood centers in order to prevent donors from developing iron deficiency without anemia or even overt iron deficient anemia. Ferritin is not a point of care analysis and is rather cost intensive. O’Meara et al. investigated VAV2 the value of routine ferritin testing and recommended an algorithm at the detection of anemia or iron deficiency without anemia. Donors were offered extending donation interval, change of diet or oral iron supplementation alone or in different combinations, according to donor’s

needs and wishes. Donors were referred to their GP when medical history was abnormal [3]. With this strategy, they could show that introduction of routine ferritin measurement was improving donor Hb and ferritin when following an algorithm for donor counseling based on Hb and ferritin, particularly in the group of women of childbearing age. Stern et al. investigated the value of ferritin, HB and red blood cell indices (MCV and MCHC) to predict low HB deferral at the next visit. This study found that hemoglobin was the best single marker for predicting low HB at the next visit. Ferritin levels were found to be of additional value in blood donors with Hb 5 μg/mL and less above Hb cutoff values [2]. However this finding has not yet been validated prospectively. In a recent study, Kiss et al. showed that red cell indices are of limited value for use as diagnostic tools in blood donors at risk for iron deficiency [52].

3 and Fig  4) Correspondingly, no significant differences were o

3 and Fig. 4). Correspondingly, no significant differences were observed in histochemical staining among the four wheat genotypes; however, the area of the mechanical tissue in the solid stemmed variety was obviously larger than any of the other three genotypes (Fig. 2A to L). Lodging resistance of XNSX was 3.0- and 4.1-fold that of Line 3159 and CS, respectively. F1 plants had lower lodging resistance than XNSX, but had 2.27-fold higher values than Line 3159

(Table 1). Lodging resistance was positively correlated with WOMT (r = 1.000, P < 0.01), WOSW (r = 0.972, P < 0.05), and WOL (r = 0.986, P < 0.05) ( Table 2). In addition, significantly positive correlations were found between WOMT PFT�� in vivo and WOSW (r = 0.968, P < 0.05), WOMT and WOL (r = 0.988, P < 0.05), AOT and NOVB (r = 0.955, P < 0.05),

AOT and NSVB (r = 0.982, P < 0.05), cellulose and lignin content (r = 0.993, P < 0 .01), whereas no significant correlations were found between lodging resistance and the chemical compositions, RSW, AOVB, or AOT ( Table 2). The relationships between lodging resistance and the chemical and anatomical characteristics of the four genotypes were tested using a stepwise forward regression, where lignin, cellulose, AOT, AOVB, WOMT, WOSW, RSW and WOL were used as independent variables. Each variable was added in the order of statistical significance (P < 0.05). The best predictor of lodging resistance was obtained from a model incorporating WOMT, AOVB and WOSW as follows: LR=−20.251+0.397WOMT+5.287E−06AOVB+0.009WOSW For 607 microsatellite Seliciclib chemical structure markers, 120 showed polymorphisms between XNSX and Line 3159. Among these, Xgwm340 and Xgwm247 on chromosome 3BL exhibited amplification profiles that distinguished between the solid and hollow stemmed parents in

corresponding bulks, suggesting a possible association between stem solidness and these markers ( Fig. 5). Subsequently, the entire F2 population was genotyped for these markers. Both markers were located proximally to the solid stem locus (Xgwm340–4.0 cM–Xgwm247–12.1 cM–Solid stem QTL peak) and results from ANOVA showed that the solid stem phenotypic Interleukin-2 receptor variance explained by the Xgwm-247 locus was about 77%, and that explained by Xgwm-340 was 62%. Lodging resistance is of importance in cereal crop breeding. It is well known that morphological characteristics significantly affect lodging resistance. As a result, morphological differences among cultivars have been studied to identify morphological and anatomical traits associated with lodging response so that they could be used to breed for lodging resistance [22] and [23]. Previous studies showed that lodging resistance is negatively correlated with stem diameter [3] and [24], whereas we found that lodging resistance in the four wheat genotypes examined was positively correlated with stem wall thickness of (r = 0.972, P < 0.05). Other workers have also suggested that thicker stem walls increase lodging resistance in wheat [3] and [25].

The horses were subjected to at least two cycles of re-immunizati

The horses were subjected to at least two cycles of re-immunizations. All doses were diluted in sterile

saline buffer. The horses were bled one week after the last injection. Approximately 50 ml of blood was collected and subjected to hemosedimentation at 37 °C for 1 h and the supernatant was centrifuged. The fraction obtained (anti-Loxosceles serum) was stored at −20 °C. Forty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used to assess the neutralizing potency of the ten horse sera used in this study. The neutralizing capacity of the anti-Loxosceles sera was assessed using the methodology described by Furlanetto (1961). The quantity of the venom that was inoculated into the rabbits was based on the minimum necrotic dosage (MND) as reported by Theakston et al. (2003). For this test, only the venom from L. intermedia was inoculated (intradermally) on the inner ear of a rabbit (3 BMS354825 animals/dilution of sera tested) with 1 ml of intravenous injection (marginal vein of the opposite ear) of serum (1:8 and/or 1:6 dilutions) in saline buffer. Initially, the serum dilution was 1:8 and the animals were observed for 72 h for the appearance of necrosis. During this time period, the appearance of necrosis indicated that the diluted horse serum was not sufficient

to neutralize the venom. In that case, a 1:6 serum dilution was then used. Sera, which were not able to neutralize 6 MND of the venom, were considered to be of low neutralizing potency. ELISA was performed by coating plates (Falcon, see more Becton Dickinson) overnight

at 4 °C with 100 μl of a 2.5 μg/ml solution of crude venom from the three species of Loxosceles (L. intermedia, L. gaucho, and L. laeta) in carbonate buffer (0.05 mM) at pH 9.6. After washing and blocking (with 2% casein for 1 h at 37 °C) the plates, they were incubated in diluted sera (1:1000; 1:5000; 1:20 000; and 1:40 000) under the same conditions. Peroxidase-conjugated anti-horse IgG antibody (Sigma, 1:30 000) was added and the plates were incubated for 1 h at 37 °C. After rinsing the plates, a substrate (citrate buffer pH 5.0, hydrogen peroxide, and ortho-phenyldiamine) was added. The reaction was stopped by adding 20 μl of 5% H2SO4; the antibody NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase reactivity was determined by the intensity of the staining. Absorbance values were determined at 492 nm using an ELISA Bio-Rad 550. All measurements were done in duplicate and the results were expressed as the mean of three assays. Different ELISA conditions were tested: the composition of the synthetic peptides (Pep1-BSA, Pep2-BSA, Pep3-BSA, Pep1-BSA + Pep2-BSA, Pep1-BSA + Pep3-BSA, Pep2-BSA + Pep3-BSA, or Pep1-BSA + Pep2-BSA + Pep3-BSA), the antigen concentration (2.5, 5.0, 25.0, 50.0, or 100.0 μg/ml), the plate coating, and the sera dilution (1:1000 and 1:10 000). All measurements were done in triplicate. Two hundred seventy-eight overlapping pentadecapeptides (15-mer) frame-shifted by 3 residues covering the amino acid sequence of the SMase-D proteins of L.

aeruginosa, 2, 34, 35 and 36 damage to developing granulation tis

aeruginosa, 2, 34, 35 and 36 damage to developing granulation tissue, hindrance of migrating epidermal cells, maceration,

2 and 3 and increased venous hypertension and vascular congestion. 2 and 41 Evidenced-based-wound management continues to increase and along with that the evaluation and re-evaluation of biophysical energies in light of evidence, outcomes, and potential harm. Whirlpool, initially harnessed as a physical energy, which could simultaneously do mechanical debridement and cleansing, does not have sufficient evidence to remain among viable choices for patient care, especially when one considers the options of single-patient-use-interventions which eliminate the CYC202 molecular weight potential for cross-contamination. Our responsibility as health care practitioners is to minimize risks for our patients. Based on the evidence, utilizing readily accessible modalities and alternatives to WP therapy in wound care is the most credible option. The risk of nosocomial infection associated with WP therapy is too significant to overcome the limited evidence supporting its benefits in wound care. In the presence of several treatment alternatives Staurosporine mouse (e.g., PLWV), evidence-based practice (via best-available scientific evidence) does not support the use of WP for wound care. “
“A 75 year-old female presented to the wound center with

right leg ulceration and cellulitis due to untreated venous insufficiency. The patient was seen in the emergency room earlier in the day and blood test showed a white blood count of

12,000 and Doppler ultrasound was negative for deep venous thrombosis. Upon being seen in the wound care clinic, the patient was started on doxycycline 100 mg PO BID to treat her cellulitis and was given local wound care of absorptive dressing with compression therapy to treat her leg wound. She was also told to avoid sun exposure while on doxycycline. On her next visit find more 1 week later, it was noted that her right hand had first and second degree burns on the dorsum of the hand (Figure 1). The patient denied any contact with heat source and said that she was traveling in the car as a passenger and wasn’t aware that her right hand was exposed to the sun for 1 h. The patient stated she developed the injury that night. As the patient was on doxycycline for 1 week, the diagnosis of a hypersensitivity injury due to sun exposure was made. She was started on local burn care including daily dressing change to the hand using silver sulfadiazine cream and dressing. The patient’s hand injuries healed in 1 week later (Figure 2) along with the cellulitis. The patient’s leg ulcer healed 2 weeks later and she now wears compression stockings. Doxycycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic effective against both gram positive and negative bacteria. This is performed by allosteric binding of the amino acyl T-RNA site at the receptor site halting the creation of the protein on the 30S ribosome.

[2••]) Although studies

directly linking food-induced br

[2••]). Although studies

directly linking food-induced brain responses with future weight outcomes are scarce and partly inconsistent 53, 54 and 55, results have been promising: reactivity of multiple brain regions has been found to predict weight-gain [53] or success in weight-loss programs [54]. To find simple measures for brain-based profiling, these lines of research should be integrated such that questionnaire responses are linked to the food-induced brain responses that predict Vorinostat purchase future weight gain. With the current knowledge that many food-specific personality characteristics are interrelated [2••] and appear to modulate the neural response to food cues in similar areas as more general personality characteristics

such as impulsivity and reward sensitivity do, we can speculate that general personality characteristics may be the most learn more promising candidate measures for profiling persons at risk for weight gain. A knowledge gap is that it is still unknown to which specific aspect of eating behavior weight gain can be attributed. Eating patterns are formed by decisions on what to eat, when to start and when to stop eating and together determine meal frequency, meal size, and, ultimately, nutrient intake. These different decisions may have different underlying neurobiological mechanisms and individuals predisposed for weight gain could differ on one or more of these mechanisms [56]. This is highly relevant because weight-management interventions could be tailored to specific problematic eating

behaviors. Most studies focused on the pre-consumption phase by measuring responses to passively viewing food pictures (with a few exceptions). Future studies should focus on the decisions to start or stop eating by linking food-induced brain responses with more intermediate proxies of overweight, such as food choice and meal size 57, 58, 59 and 60. In addition, future studies should establish CYTH4 in how far personality characteristics capture individual differences in sensory specific satiety and sensitivity to gastric filling (and signaling to the brain) [61]. Since the majority of studies assessed personality characteristics with self-report measures (questionnaires), there is a great lack of studies investigating behavioral and neuropsychological tasks, such as a temporal discounting task for measuring impulsivity. Since self-reports are prone to socially desirable responding and demand characteristics [62], we stress that future research should also employ behavioral and neuropsychological tasks. In conclusion, to foster progress in the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between personality characteristics and eating behavior (replication) studies with standardized food cue paradigms and personality characteristics reporting whole-brain results are clearly needed.

Late GU Grade 1 and 2 toxicities were observed in 38% and 48%, re

Late GU Grade 1 and 2 toxicities were observed in 38% and 48%, respectively, and one patient developed Grade 3 urinary incontinence. Three patients developed urethral stricture (Grade 3), which were corrected with urethral dilatation. The median time to develop Grade 3 complications was

9 months (range, 9–12 months), and the median time for resolution of Grade 3 symptoms was 7 months (range, 23–21 months). No Grade 4 urinary toxicities were observed. Baseline urinary status was found to be significantly associated with post-treatment late urinary toxicity for the development of Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events Grade 2 (p = 0.008) but not for Grade 3 or higher toxicity. Figure 3 illustrates the rates of Grade 2 GU toxicity based on baseline scores. Seventy-eight percent of patients were without significant urinary symptoms (GU Grade 0–1) before the administration of salvage treatment, and 52% of these

remained Rapamycin supplier free of additional urinary toxicity at the time of last followup. Thus, the majority of urinary toxicity PI3K Inhibitor Library order resolved to baseline. Of the three patients who developed Grade 3 urinary toxicity, two were characterized at baseline as having Grade 2 symptoms, and one patient was classified as having Grade 1 symptoms at baseline. The median IPSS at baseline was 6 (range, 1–17), and the median IPSS at last followup was 12 (range, 1–30). Resolution of an elevated IPSS was seen in 41% of patients (returned within 2 points of baseline) within a median time of 4.5 months. IPSS

did not return to baseline values at the time of last followup in 24 patients, with a reported median IPSS value of 14.5 at the time of last followup (range, Venetoclax 5–30). Late Grade 1 and 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were noted in 43% and 14% of patients, respectively, and 83% of patients were free of Grade 2 or higher GI complications (Fig. 3). GI complications consisted almost entirely of transient rectal bleeding. No Grade 3 or higher GI complications were encountered. The majority of patients were not sexually active at baseline. The median International Index of Erectile Function score before and after treatment was 2 and 1.5, respectively. No dosimetric values such as V100 (volume of the prostate receiving PD) or D90 (dose to 90% of the prostate exposed to PD) were significantly associated with the risk of disease progression or any complications. In this prospective study of salvage HDR monotherapy, 76% of patients were able to achieve biochemical control in a patient population that is by definition radioresistant. Our data suggest that reirradiation with high-dose hypofractionation may be a rational salvage approach to eradicate tumor cells that have survived conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. We also noted an excellent tolerance profile to patients who received salvage HDR despite the high initial doses that patients had received as part of their definitive EBRT.

Fungal cultures in minimal medium containing hydroquinone were in

Fungal cultures in minimal medium containing hydroquinone were incubated at several times to ensure different degradation yields. Fungal mycelium was then separated by centrifugation and the supernatants

buffered to pH 7.4 and isotonic conditions. Those samples obtained after fungal treatment (AFT) were then added to selleck inhibitor the fibroblast and HCT116 cells growing in McCoýs medium ( Fig. 2). Cell survival was evaluated by a well-established method based on the fluorescent conversion of a redox indicator (Alamar Blue®) after 24 h of culture on AFT samples. Controls were provided by fibroblasts and HCT116 cells cultivated exactly for the same periods of time in plain MMFe medium i.e. in which the fraction of saline medium was freshly prepared without hydroquinone. The data shows a strong correlation between higher remaining concentrations of hydroquinone and reduced survival of HCT116 cells ( Fig. 2). A different survival pattern was observed on fibroblasts; data depicted in Fig. 2 shows that concentrations of 33.6 μM of hydroquinone obtained after fungal treatment can reduce approximately 70% of the survival of fibroblasts cells. These data suggests that P. chrysogenum TSA HDAC clinical trial var. halophenolicum produces one

or more metabolites during hydroquinone degradation that increase its toxicity, in particularly to fibroblasts cells. On the other hand, the salt medium composition (controls) did not affect cell viability. To further address whether hydroquinone itself did play the key role in reduced survival of human cells, we cultivated HCT116 cells in medium in which hydroquinone had been reduced to undetectable levels by P. chrysogenum from initial concentrations

of 4541 or 7265 μM ( Fig. 3). The results show that, irrespectively of the initial concentration of hydroquinone, survival of HCT116 cells is only minimally affected when compared to controls cultured in freshly prepared salt medium ( Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). Importantly, when purified hydroquinone was added back to a final concentration of 227 μM, survival of HCT116 cells were reduced to levels comparable to those observed when hydroquinone reached similar concentrations via P. chrysogenum-dependent degradation ( Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). Together, these data demonstrate that P. chrysogenum Benzatropine var. halophenolicum is able to reduce the toxicity exerted by hydroquinone on cultured human cells. We subsequently tested whether the capacity P. chrysogenum to eliminate the negative effect of hydroquinone on fibroblasts and HCT116 cells observed previously, was due to the hydroquinone degradation to undetectable levels in culture. To do so, batch cultures with P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum and hydroquinone at different initial concentrations of 4541 and 7265 μM in saline liquid media (MMFe) were performed. The results are shown in Fig. 4.

In the second set of experiments, we evaluated the effect of bana

In the second set of experiments, we evaluated the effect of banana flour supplementation on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone to determine whether banana flour improves the pharmacologic activity of this glucocorticoid that is currently used in treatment of human IBD. Our results revealed that the combined use of a 10% banana flour diet with prednisolone was effective for preventing the intestinal inflammatory

process, as demonstrated by the improvement in the Selleckchem RAD001 macroscopic, microscopic, histologic, and biochemical inflammatory parameters evaluated. This preventive effect was more pronounced than those observed after a single administration of prednisolone, the use of the 10% and 20% banana flour diet

alone, or the 20% banana flour diet combined with prednisolone. The fruits of the green dwarf banana are rich in starch, primarily presented as resistant starch [10], which GDC-0449 order can act as a substrate yielding high levels of butyrate [28], an SCFA that improves gastrointestinal health, immune surveillance, and the growth and differentiation of enterocytes [6], [29] and [30]. Recent studies have shown that after 7 days of supplementation with resistant starch, chronically inflamed rats had the same butyrate uptake as rats fed on the basal diet [30]. In fact, prebiotic foodstuffs derived from resistant starch were suggested to be effective in the amelioration of colitis in both clinical and animal studies [28] and [30]. Green dwarf banana flour has been chosen as a starch source because of the high content of resistant Dapagliflozin starch, whereas banana fruit is considered to be one of the few sources of this resistant starch available in an ordinary meal [11] and [31]. In addition to the great value of resistant starch as a source of butyrate, resistant starch 2, a starch type present in green dwarf bananas, is also rich in amylose, which increases SCFA production and Bifidobacterium spp and Lactobacillus spp growth in the gut [32], [33], [34] and [35]. In our experimental conditions, the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of the banana flour diet was not related

to prebiotic properties because no improvement in bacterial growth and development was observed. However, the methods used to determine bacterial growth and development are limited, and new studies are necessary, particularly using other experimental models of colitis, such as dextran sulfate sodium, and a more appropriate and specific culture medium. The role of the reactive metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen in the pathophysiology of IBD has been reported [36]. Although the specific pathways leading to cellular damage are not completely understood, oxidative stress is a potential etiologic and/or triggering factor for IBD, and antioxidant therapy can constitute an interesting approach in the regulation of this intestinal inflammation condition [37].