GM-CSF increased both Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma
RIIb mRNA expression. We then characterized the ability of these same cytokines to regulate phagocytosis of immune complexes composed of IgG and the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. IFN-gamma and GM-CSF both induced approximately 2-fold increases in IgG-mediated phagocytosis whereas IL-4 and IL-13 both decreased IgG-mediated phagocytosis by about one-third. None of the cytokines influenced basal levels of phagocytosis. These findings demonstrate a highly www.selleckchem.com/products/ITF2357(Givinostat).html selective cytokine-induced regulation of both phagocytosis-related Fc gamma receptor subtypes and IgG-mediated phagocytosis itself in microglia. This selective regulation has implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of CNS infection and autoimmune disease. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) interleukin-6 (vIL-6) is distinct from human and other cellular IL-6 proteins selleck inhibitor in that it does not require the nonsignaling alpha-receptor subunit for the formation of gp130-based signal transducing complexes and also
is largely retained intracellularly rather than being secreted. We and others have reported that vIL-6 is retained and is active in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartment, and data from our laboratory have demonstrated that intracellular vIL-6 is functional in the autocrine promotion of proliferation and survival of HHV-8 latently infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. It has also been reported that vIL-6 Selonsertib supplier secretion in gp130-deficient cells can be enhanced by introduced
gp130, thereby implicating the signal transducer in vIL-6 trafficking to the cell surface. We examine here the requirements for intracellular retention and localization of vIL-6. Using vIL-6-hIL-6 chimeric and point-mutated vIL-6 proteins, we identified regions and residues of vIL-6 influencing vIL-6 secretion. However, there was no correlation between vIL-6 secretion and gp130 interaction. We found that vIL-6, but not hIL-6, could associate stably with ER-resident chaperone protein calnexin. Glycosylation-dependent interaction of vIL-6 with calnexin correlated with proper protein folding, but there was no direct relationship between vIL-6-calnexin interaction and intracellular retention. While calnexin depletion had little influence on absolute amounts of secreted vIL-6, it led to markedly reduced levels of intracellular cytokine. This was reversed by gp130 transduction, which had no detectable effect on vIL-6 secretion, but redistributed vIL-6 into ER-distinct locations in calnexin-depleted cells, specifically. Our data reveal that calnexin plays a role in ER localization of vIL-6 and that gp130 promotes ER exit, but not secretion, of the viral cytokine.”
“Lampreys are vertebrate animal models in spinal cord regeneration studies.