The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most

The resultant hexavalent designer cellulosome represents the most

elaborate artificial enzyme composite yet constructed, and the fully functional complex achieved enhanced levels (up to 1.6-fold) of degradation of untreated wheat straw 432 compared to those of the wild-type free enzymes. The action of these designer cellulosomes on wheat straw was 33 to 42% as efficient as the natural cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum. In contrast, the reduction of substrate complexity by chemical or biological pretreatment of the substrate removed the advantage of the designer cellulosomes, as the free enzymes displayed higher levels of activity, indicating that enzyme proximity between these selected enzymes was less significant on pretreated substrates. Pretreatment of the VX-680 concentration substrate caused an increase in activity for all the systems, and the native cellulosome completely converted the substrate into soluble saccharides.\n\nIMPORTANCE Cellulosic biomass is a potential alternative resource which could satisfy future demands (-)-Nutlin-3 of transportation fuel. However, overcoming the natural lignocellulose recalcitrance remains challenging. Current research and development efforts have concentrated on the efficient cellulose-degrading strategies of cellulosome-producing anaerobic bacteria. Cellulosomes are multienzyme

complexes capable of converting the plant cell wall polysaccharides into soluble sugar products en route to biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels. Using a designer cellulosome approach, we have constructed the largest form of homogeneous artificial cellulosomes reported to date, which bear a total of six

different cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium Thermobifida fusca. These designer cellulosomes were comparable in size to natural cellulosomes and displayed enhanced synergistic activities compared to their free wild-type enzyme counterparts. Future efforts should be invested to improve these processes to approach or surpass the efficiency of natural cellulosomes for cost-effective production of biofuels.”
“Background: In Colombia, Plasmodium falciparum infection rarely results in severe disease or mortality small molecule library screening compared to infections in African populations. During natural infection NK cells exhibit a cytolytic effect and regulate dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils as well as affect antigen specific T and B cell responses. To characterize the NK cells in P. falciparum infected patients of a highly endemic region of Colombia, the degree of NK proliferation and production of IFN gamma and TNF production in these cells were explored.\n\nMethods: Seventeen patients with acute and three with severe P. falciparum malaria patients from the Northwest region of the country were recruited in the study.

We applied newly developed methods for modelling the distribution

We applied newly developed methods for modelling the distribution of invasive species to the invasive shrub Rhododendron ponticum-a foliar reservoir host for the Phytophthora oomycete plant pathogens, P. ramorum and P. kernoviae, that threaten woodland and heathland habitat in Scotland. We compiled eleven datasets of biological records for R. ponticum (1,691 points, 8,455 polygons) and developed Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models incorporating landscape, soil and climate predictors. Our models produced accurate predictions of current suitable R. ponticum habitat (training AUC = 0.838; test AUC = 0.838) that corresponded SC79 cost well with population performance

(areal cover). Continuous broad-leaved woodland cover, low elevation (< 400 m a.s.l.) and intermediate levels of soil moisture (or Enhanced Vegetation Index) favoured presence of R. ponticum. The high coincidence of suitable habitat with both core native woodlands (54 % of woodlands) and plantations of another sporulation host, Larix kaempferi (64 % of plantations) suggests a high potential AZD5153 cost for spread of Phytophthora infection to woodland mediated by R. ponticum. Incorporating non-equilibrium modelling methods did not improve habitat suitability predictions of this invasive host, possibly because, as a long-standing invader, R. ponticum has filled more of its available habitat at this national scale than previously suspected.”

physiological and behavioural responses of early life phases in

American Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) towards sand and gravel substrate were examined during the first 15 days post-hatch. The free embryos were reared in circular tanks with approximately 30% of the bottom surface covered with either coarse gravel or sand. A group reared in tanks without additional substrate served as a control. Diurnal differences in activity patterns were observed. Substrate use by the free embryos revealed 123 significant differences during the first 5 days post-hatch, being higher in the gravel group than in the sand group. The results in size of the free embryos revealed significant differences, with the gravel group showing the lowest total length and wet mass until the onset of exogenous feeding – although dry mass and energy contents were highest. In contrast, length and wet mass during yolk sac absorption were highest in the control selleck chemical group, but energy content at onset of exogenous feeding was 14% lower compared to the gravel group. The onset of exogenous feeding in the gravel group had a 1-day delay when compared to the two other treatments. On day 14, following the successful establishment of exogenous feed uptake, the specific growth rate in wet mass (SGR) for the gravel group (0.250 +/- 0.088) exceeded those of the two other treatments (sand 0.132 +/- 0.038 and control 0.095 +/- 0.020) significantly (Dunn’s n = 10 and n = 5, P < 0.05), indicating a compensational growth pattern.

Drug concentrations in plasma and bile were analyzed pharmacokine

Drug concentrations in plasma and bile were analyzed pharmacokinetically and used for a Monte Carlo simulation to predict the probability of attaining the pharmacodynamic

target (40% of the time above the MIC). Both drugs penetrated similarly into bile, with mean bile/plasma ratios of 0.24 to 0.25 (maximum drug concentration) and 0.30 to 0.38 (area under the drug concentration-time curve). CX-6258 supplier The usual regimens of meropenem (0.5 g every 8 h [q8h]) and biapenem (0.3 g q8h) (0.5-h infusions) achieved similar target attainment probabilities in bile (>= 90%) against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates. However, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, meropenem at 1 g q8h and biapenem at 0.6 g q8h were required for values of 80.7% and 71.9%, respectively. The biliary pharmacodynamic-based breakpoint (the highest MIC at which the MLN8237 ic50 target attainment probability in bile was >= 90%) was 1 mg/liter for 0.5 g q8h and 2 mg/liter for 1 g q8h for meropenem and 0.5 mg/liter for 0.3 g q8h and 1 mg/liter for 0.6 g q8h for biapenem. These results help to define the clinical pharmacokinetics of the two carbapenems in bile while also helping to rationalize and optimize the dosing regimens for biliary tract infections based on site-specific pharmacodynamic

target attainment.”
“The growth of Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 7145 on meso-erythritol is characterized by two stages: in the first stage, meso-erythritol is oxidized almost stoichiometrically to L-erythrulose according to the Bertrand Hudson rule. The second phase is distinguished from the first phase by a global metabolic change from membrane-bound meso-erythritol oxidation to L-erythrulose assimilation with concomitant accumulation of acetic acid. The membrane-associated

erythritol-oxidizing enzyme was found to be encoded by a gene homologous to sldA known from other species of acetic acid bacteria. Disruption of this gene in the genome of G. oxydans DSM 7145 revealed that the membrane-bound polyol dehydrogenase not only oxidizes meso-erythritol but also has a broader substrate spectrum which includes C3-C6 polyols and D-gluconate and supports growth on these substrates. Cultivation of G. oxydans DSM 7145 on different substrates indicated that expression I-BET-762 of the polyol dehydrogenase was not regulated, implying that the production of biomass of G. oxydans to be used as whole-cell biocatalysts in the biotechnological conversion of meso-erythritol to L-erythrulose, which is used as a tanning agent in the cosmetics industry, can be conveniently carried out with glucose as the growth substrate.”
“Objective: Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin gene (PGRN) were identified in 4 frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions (FTLD-U). We assessed whether PGRN also contributes to genetic risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) in an extended Belgian AD patient group (n = 779, onset age 74.7 +/- 8.7 years).

All of them had uneventful postoperative recovery period and were

All of them had uneventful postoperative recovery period and were still pain-free at the latest follow up after 26.6 months (24/30). Median time-to-return to competitive sports level was 10 weeks (8/13). None of the patients developed pubic instability due to symphyseal spur resection. The results of considerable postoperative improvement in our patients highlight the significance of posterior symphyseal spurs as a diagnostic possibility in athletes with chronic CA3 in vitro groin pain.”
“Purpose of review\n\nThe present review is intended to provide a critical

overview of recent investigations of obesity among older persons with emphasis upon associated functional limitations, potential for intervention, and a future research agenda.\n\nRecent findings\n\nObesity is growing in prevalence among older persons. The association between obesity and functional decline is well documented. Recent findings suggest possible contributions of obesity-associated inflammatory milieu, sarcopenia, and impairment of muscle function/strength to adverse functional outcomes. A growing body of literature supports consideration of moderate weight

reduction to secure improved metabolic and functional parameters for obese older persons.\n\nSummary\n\nObesity is associated with an unfortunate burden of chronic disease, functional limitation, and poor life quality. In view of the growing numbers of afflicted older individuals, there must be research priority to discern how obesity

impacts function so that GSK690693 appropriate prevention and treatment strategies may be adopted.”
“A novel picornavirus genome was sequenced, showing 42.6%, 35.2%, and 44.6% of deduced amino acid identities corresponding to the P1, P2, and P3 regions, respectively, of the Aichi virus. Divergent strains of this new virus, which we named salivirus, were detected in 18 stool samples from Nigeria, 4 Tunisia, Nepal, and the United States. A statistical association was seen between virus shedding and unexplained cases of gastroenteritis in Nepal (P = 0.0056). Viruses with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity, named klassevirus, were also recently reported PX-478 in three cases of unexplained diarrhea from the United States and Australia and in sewage from Spain, reflecting a global distribution and supporting a pathogenic role for this new group of picornaviruses.”
“High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data.

“Patterns of clinal genetic variation in Drosophila are of

“Patterns of clinal genetic variation in Drosophila are often characterized after rearing at constant temperatures. However, clinal patterns might change after acclimation if populations differ in their Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor plastic response to fluctuating environments. We studied longevity, starvation and heat knock-down resistance after development at either constant or fluctuating temperatures in nine Drosophila buzzatii populations collected along an altitudinal

gradient in Tenerife, Spain. Flies that developed at fluctuating temperatures had higher stress resistance despite experiencing a slightly lower average temperature than those at constant temperatures. Genetic variation along the gradient was found in both stress-resistance traits. Because Q(ST) values greatly exceeded F(ST) values, genetic drift

could not explain this diversification. In general, differences among populations were larger after rearing at fluctuating temperatures, especially in heat knock-down, for which clinal patterns disappeared when flies were reared at constant temperatures. This result emphasizes the importance of determining whether populations originating from different environments differ in their plastic responses to stress.”
“Tumor cell destruction in boron 123 neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B and thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons have an energy of 0.025 eV, clearly below the threshold energy required PF-562271 research buy to ionize tissue components. However, neutron capture by (10)B produces lithium ion and helium (alpha-partictes), which are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, and dissipate their kinetic energy before traveling one cell diameter (5-9 mu m) in biological tissues, ensuring their potential for precise cell killing. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer, and hepatoma using two boron compounds:

sodium borocaptate (Na(2)(10)B(12)H(11)SH; Na(2)(10)BSH) and L-P-boronophenylalanine (L-(10)BPA). These low molecular weight compounds are cleared easily from the cancer cells and blood. Therefore, high accumulation and selective delivery of boron compounds into tumor tissues are most important to achieve effective BNCT and to avoid damage of adjacent healthy cells. Much attention has been focused on the liposomal drug delivery system (DDS) as an attractive, intelligent technology of targeting and controlled release of (10)B compounds. Two approaches have been investigated for incorporation of (10)B into liposomes: (1) encapsulation of (10)B compounds into liposomes and (2) incorporation of (10)B-conjugated lipids into the liposomal bilayer. Our laboratory has developed boron ion cluster lipids for application of the latter approach. In this chapter, our boron lipid liposome approaches as well as recent developments of the liposomal boron delivery system are summarized.

These compounds comprise a new class of promising broad-spectrum

These compounds comprise a new class of promising broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agents. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A novel human leukocyte antigen-C (HLA-C) allele, C*07:314, was identified in a French acute Ruboxistaurin solubility dmso lymphoblastic leukemia patient.”

headache is a severely debilitating disorder that can remain unrelieved by current pharmacotherapy. Alongside ablative neurosurgical procedures, neuro modulatory treatments of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and occipital nerve simulation have emerged in the last few years as effective treatments for medically refractory cluster headaches. Pioneers in the field have sought to publish guidelines for neurosurgical treatment; however, only small case series with selleck screening library limited long-term follow-up have been 4 published. Controversy remains over which surgical treatments

are best and in which circumstances to intervene. Here we review current data on neurosurgical interventions for chronic cluster headache focusing upon DBS and occipital nerve stimulation, and discuss the indications for and putative mechanisms of DBS including translational insights from functional neuroimaging, diffusion weighted tractography, magnetoencephalography and invasive neurophysiology. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background\n\nSeveral metabolic derangements associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) have been associated with a better outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including hyperlipidemia and obesity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DM would have

a positive effect on the motor and cognitive findings of ALS.\n\nMethods:\n\nWe compared data from ALS patients with pre-morbid DM (ALS-DM; n = 175) versus without DM (ALS; n = selleckchem 2196) with regard to the age of onset, rate of motor progression, survival, and neuropsychological test performance.\n\nResults:\n\nThe age of onset was later for women, Caucasians and patients with bulbar-onset ALS. However, we also found that after adjusting for gender, ethnicity and site of onset, DM was associated with a 4-year later onset of ALS (ALS = 56.3, ALS-DM = 60.3, P < 0.05).\n\nConclusion:\n\nDiabetes mellitus type 2 may delay the onset of motor symptoms in ALS. These findings support other studies suggesting a relationship between the pathophysiology of ALS and metabolic derangements. Further investigations are needed to ascertain whether manipulating metabolic parameters would improve outcomes in ALS.”
“Background: Gantenerumab is a fully human anti-A beta monoclonal antibody in clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD).\n\nObjectives: To investigate whether treatment with gantenerumab leads to a measurable reduction in the level of A beta amyloid in the brain and to elucidate the mechanism of amyloid reduction.

The current review reconsiders the hot hand in sports using a met

The current review reconsiders the hot hand in sports using a meta-analytic approach.\n\nDesign: Mean effect size and 95% confidence interval were determined using a random effects model. Heterogeneity

of the mean effect size was examined applying Cochran’s Q test and the “75 percent rule”.\n\nMethod: To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to provide an empirical investigation of the hot hand phenomenon related to sport and exercise behavior. Approximately 250 papers were located, but the final dataset included only 22 publications that met inclusion criteria, with 30 studies and 56 independent effect sizes. The articles extended over a period of twenty-seven years from 1985 until 2012.\n\nResults: The analysis of the effects yielded a minor positive mean effect size of .02, p = .49, using a random JQ-EZ-05 mouse effects model, which is sufficient evidence for arguing against the existence LY2835219 of the hot hand. Due to the limited sample of studies available, only a few candidate-variables could be extracted and further

examined as potential moderator variables. However, none of the considered variables had the power to explain the heterogeneity of effect sizes.\n\nConclusions: The present study provides additional support for Gilovich et al.’s claim that a general hot hand effect probably does not exist in sport. The scientific implications of this review for prospect advances in the field are presented and discussed. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Denitrifying biofilters can remove agricultural nitrates from subsurface drainage, reducing nitrate pollution that contributes to coastal hypoxic zones. The performance

and reliability of natural and engineered systems dependent upon microbially mediated processes, such as the denitrifying PCI-32765 research buy biofilters, can be affected by the spatial structure of their microbial communities. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationship between microbial community composition and function is influenced by the spatial distribution of samples. In this study we characterized the spatial structure of bacterial communities in a denitrifying biofilter in central Illinois. Bacterial communities were assessed using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis for bacteria and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of nosZ for denitrifying bacteria. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) analyses indicated that bacteria showed statistically significant spatial structure by depth and transect, while denitrifying bacteria did not exhibit significant spatial structure. For determination of spatial patterns, we developed a package of automated functions for the R 123 statistical environment that allows directional analysis of microbial community composition data using either ANOSIM or Mantel statistics.

In this group, six patients had >= 20% drop in rSO(2), and &gt

In this group, six patients had >= 20% drop in rSO(2), and >= 50% drop in FVm. However, two patients had a non-significant drop in both rSO(2) and FVm (false negative). In the non-shunted group (41/49), one patient had a significant drop in rSO(2) (false

positive) while 10/41 patients had a >50% drop in FVm. This represents sensitivity of 75%, and specificity of 97.5% for CO compared to sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 75% for TCD in prediction of shunting. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 85.7 and 95.2%, respectively for CO, compared to 37.5 and 93.9% for TCD. Conclusions: TCD is less accurate than CO in predicting the need for carotid shunting during CEA. A combination of both methods does not add to the accuracy of detecting the need for carotid MAPK inhibitor shunting. (C) 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“The delivery of site-specific post-translational modifications to histones generates an epigenetic regulatory network that directs fundamental DNA-mediated processes and governs key stages in development. Methylation

of histone H4 lysine-20 has been implicated in DNA repair, transcriptional ALK inhibitor silencing, genomic stability and regulation of replication. We present the structure of the histone H4K20 methyltransferase Suv4-20h2 in complex with its histone H4 peptide substrate and S-adenosyl 432 methionine cofactor. Analysis of the structure reveals that the Suv4-20h2 active site diverges from the canonical SET domain configuration and generates

a high degree of both substrate and product specificity. Together with supporting biochemical data comparing Suv4-20h1 and Suv4-20h2, we demonstrate that the Suv4-20 family enzymes take a previously mono-methylated H4K20 substrate and generate an exclusively di-methylated product. We therefore predict that other enzymes are responsible for the tri-methylation of histone H4K20 that marks silenced heterochromatin.”
“Objective: Visuospatial working memory impairments have been implicated in the pathophysiology of 3-MA price attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, most ADHD research has focused on the neural correlates of nonspatial mnemonic processes. This study examined brain activation and functional connectivity for visuospatial working memory in youth with and without ADHD. Method: Twenty-four youth with ADHD and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an N-back test of working memory for spatial position. Block-design analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity separately for high (2-back) and low (1-back) working memory load conditions versus the control condition (0-back). The effect of working memory load was modeled with linear contrasts.

The cytoplasmic condition of oocytes was evaluated microscopicall

The cytoplasmic condition of oocytes was evaluated microscopically at collection in 117 women. Deteriorating oocytes were recognized by degenerative changes in their cytoplasm. The redox state of FFs that yielded degenerated oocytes was evaluated and 123 compared with fluids containing normal

oocytes. The redox state of the corresponding FF and serum, at the time of oocyte retrieval, was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The redox state of FF that contained degenerated oocytes was found to have a significantly elevated oxidized state compared with the FFs that yielded normal oocytes. Also the albumin in the FF of patients was found to be predominantly in the reduced state compared with that in their serum at the time of oocyte retrieval. Selleckchem MG 132 In addition, increasing age and endometriosis were found to shift the redox of serum to the oxidative state. We propose that the reduced state of albumin in FF may Linsitinib purchase play an important role in protecting oocytes from oxidative damage.”
“Objective. Health brokerage is one method being employed by government health agencies in an attempt to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s access to primary healthcare. This qualitative study explores key stakeholders’ understanding and acceptance of the health brokerage model, prior to the implementation of brokerage

services.\n\nMethods. Semistructured interviews and focus groups were conducted with key stakeholders. The resulting data was analysed using a grounded theory approach.\n\nResults. Qualitative analysis of the interviews and focus groups revealed five major themes. These were: (1) the perceived limitations of brokerage as a service delivery model; (2) the benefits of health brokerage AR-13324 concentration such as increased flexibility; (3) issues relating to patient independence; (4) the necessity for broker independence; and (5) a mistrust of health brokerage and the authority handling the brokerage funds.\n\nConclusions. Since this study was conducted in 2008, ongoing funding for urban brokerage services has been suspended. Although the reasons for this are unclear, our study suggests that barriers to the acceptance of brokerage services

by the community may have existed even before such services were implemented, thus highlighting the need for transparency when launching new health initiatives that hope to engage the Aboriginal community.”
“Using an interactive map-based PDF, students learn key concepts related to biodiversity while developing data-analysis and critical-thinking skills. The Bird Island lesson provides students with experience in translating geospatial data into bar graphs, then interpreting these graphs to compare biodiversity across ecoregions on a fictional island. When the lesson is extended to include real data for Puerto Rico, students can explore distributions of selected bird species based on environmental attributes, making connections between each species’ adaptations, habitat requirements, and distribution across the island.

Indapamide and indapamide and captopril treatment increased acety

Indapamide and indapamide and captopril treatment increased acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the femoral artery.\n\nConclusion Whereas captopril reduced LVH,

indapamide enhanced NOS activity and decreased oxidative damage in the case of the combined treatment. It is concluded that the complex protective effects of the combined indapamide plus captopril treatment on hypertension may be exerted via its effects on blood pressure, hypertrophy and vasorelaxation. J Hypertens 27 (suppl 6):S42-S46 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams #3 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# & Wilkins.”
“IFN-gamma regulates multiple processes in the immune system. Although its antimicrobial effector functions are well described, less is known about the mechanisms by which IFN-gamma regulates CD8(+) T cell homeostasis. With the help of adoptive T cell transfers, we show in this study that IEFN-gamma R signaling in CD8(+)

Selleckchem Torin 1 T cells is dispensable for expansion, contraction, and memory differentiation in response to peptide vaccination. In contrast, host IFN-gamma R signaling counterregulates CD8(+) T cell responses and the generation of effector memory T cell processes, which are partially regulated by CD11b(+) cells. Similar to vaccination-induced proliferation, host IFN-gamma R signaling limits the expansion of naive CD8(+) T cells and their differentiation into effector memory-like T cells in lymphopenic mice. In contrast to peptide vaccination, IFN-gamma R signaling in CD8(+) T cells contributes to memory fate decision in response to lymphopenia, an effect that is fully reversed by high-affinity TCR ligands. In conclusion, we show that host IFN-gamma R signaling controls the magnitude of CD8(+) T cell responses and subsequent memory differentiation under lymphopenic and nonlymphopenic conditions. In contrast, IFN-gamma R signaling in CD8(+) T cells does not affect cell numbers under either condition, but it directs memory fate decision in response to weak TCR ligands. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 184: 2855-2862.”
“Background: Children with chronic intestinal failure (IF) treated

with long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) may present with low bone mineral density (BMD). The cause may reflect small body size or suboptimal bone mineralization.\n\nObjective: We assessed growth Fer-1 cost and bone health in children with severe IF.\n\nDesign: Height, weight, and fracture history were recorded. The lumbar spine bone mass was measured in 45 consecutive patients (24 male subjects) aged 5-17 y receiving PN for a median of 5 y. BMD and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) [ie, adjusted-for-height SD scores (SDSs)] were calculated.\n\nResults: Diagnoses were short bowel syndrome in 12 patients (27%), intestinal enteropathy in 20 patients (44%), and motility disorder in 13 patients (29%). Mean (+/- SD) weight, height, and body mass index SDSs were -0.8 +/- 1.3, -1.80 +/- 1.5, and 0.4 +/- 1.3, respectively. The height SDS was less than -2 in 23 children (50%).