RAR selleck screening library beta(-/-) mutant mice, which lacked such enlarged compartment, displayed complex alternations of dopamine agonist-induced stereotypic motor behavior, including exaggeration of head bobbing movement and reduction of rearing activity. RAR beta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control.”
“The clinical spectrum of renal dysplasia includes the non-functioning multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK). We report our experience of the outcome of unilateral MCDK and

its contralateral kidney in 101 children with the diagnosis of MCDK from 1985 to 2009. Data collected 123 included urine protein/creatinine ratio, estimated GFR (eGFR), blood pressure, surgical intervention, renal length and abnormalities of the contralateral kidney, and the involution rate. There was a predominance of left-sided MCDK. Diagnosis was made prenatally in 86.7%. Contralateral abnormalities

included vesicoureteral reflux (16.8%), UPJ obstruction (4.1%), and megaureter (2.4%). Complete involution of MCDK occurred within 5 years in 60%. Compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral kidney to buy LY2835219 > 97% occurred in 74.1%. Nephrectomy was performed in 19.8%. There was an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage a parts per thousand yen2, and hypertension in those with contralateral abnormalities (p < 0.0001; p < 0.001 respectively). In those without contralateral abnormalities, hyperfiltration with mean eGFR of 149 +/- 13 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was seen in

32% and proteinuria in 9.8%. There was a significantly inverse relationship between proteinuria and eGFR (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, children with contralateral abnormalities are at risk for developing decreased kidney function, PCI-32765 in vitro whereas a substantial number of patients with no obvious contralateral abnormalities have markers of renal injury. Therefore, systematic follow-up of all patients is recommended.”
“Results of kidney transplantation are excellent, but the number of patients on the waiting lists far exceeds the number of available organs. Living kidney donation must be considered as an important part of organ transplantation programmes. In the European Union countries, nearly 20% of all kidney transplants in 2010 were done with organs from living donors. However, the proportion of live donor kidney transplantation between EU countries varies greatly: from 3% to 54% of all kidney transplantations.\n\nMultiple initiatives have been undertaken in most of the European countries to increase the number of living donor kidney transplantations.

In this study we addressed this gap by systematically manipulatin

In this study we addressed this gap by systematically manipulating cognition-emotion interaction in a social DM context, when the participants played a card game with a hypothetical opponent in a behavioral study (n=73) and a functional magnetic-resonance-imaging study (n = 16). We observed that payoff-based behavioral choices were influenced by emotional values carried by face pictures and identified neurocircuits involved in cognitive valuation, emotional

valuation, and concurrent cognition-emotion value integration. Specifically, while the vmPFC, amygdala, and ventral striatum were all involved in both cognitive and emotional domains of valuation, SBE-β-CD molecular weight these regions played dissociable roles in social DM. The payoff-dependent responses in vmPFC and amygdala, but not ventral striatum, were moderated

by the social context. Furthermore, the vmPFC, but not amygdala, not only encoded the opponent’s gains as if self’s losses, but also represented a “final 3 common selleck compound currency” during valuation-based decisions. The extent to which emotional input influenced choices was associated with the functional connectivity between the value-signaling amygdala and value integrating vmPFC, and also with the functional connectivity between the context-setting hippocampus and value-signaling amygdala and ventral striatum. These results identify brain pathways through which emotion shapes subjective values in a social DM context. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The quaternary isoquinoline alkaloid, sanguinarine (SG) plays an important role in both traditional and modern medicine, exhibiting a wide range of biological activities. Under physiological conditions, there is an equilibrium between the VX770 quaternary cation (SG(+)) and a pseudobase (SGOH) forms of SG. In the gastrointestinal tract, SG is converted to dihydrosanguinarine (DHSG). All forms exhibit bright fluorescence. However, their spectra overlap, which limited the use of powerful techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy/microscopy. Our experiments using a combination of steady-state and time-resolved

techniques enabled the separation of individual components. The results revealed that (a) the equilibrium constant between SG(+) and SGOH is pK (a) = 8.06, while fluorescence of DHSG exhibited no changes in the pH range 5-12, (b) the SGOH has excitation/emission spectra with maxima at 327/418 nm and excited-state lifetime 3.2 ns, the spectra of the SG(+) have maxima at 475/590 nm and excited-state lifetime 2.4 ns. The DHSG spectra have maxima at 327/446 nm and 2-exponential decay with components 4.2 and 2.0 ns, (c) NADH is able to convert SG to DHSG, while there is no apparent interaction between NADH and DHSG. These techniques are applicable for monitoring the SG to DHSG conversion in hepatocytes.

“Background: Bacteriophages (phages) have been used extens

“Background: Bacteriophages (phages) have been used extensively as analytical tools to type bacterial cultures and recently for control of zoonotic foodborne pathogens in foods and in animal reservoirs.\n\nMethods: We examined the host range, morphology,

genome and proteome of the lytic E. coli O157 phage rV5, derived from phage V5, which is a member of an Escherichia GDC-0973 mouse coli O157:H7 phage typing set.\n\nResults: Phage rV5 is a member of the Myoviridae family possessing an icosahedral head of 91 nm between opposite apices. The extended tail measures 121 x 17 nm and has a sheath of 44 x 20 nm and a 7 nm-wide core in the contracted state. It possesses a 137,947 bp genome (43.6 mol%GC) which encodes 233 ORFs and six tRNAs. Until recently this virus appeared to be phylogenetically isolated with almost 70% of its gene products ORFans. rV5 is closely related to coliphages Delta and vB-EcoM-FY3, and more distantly related to Salmonella phages PVP-SE1 and SSE-121, Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB_CsaM_GAP31, and coliphages phAPEC8 and phi92. A complete shotgun proteomic analysis was carried out on rV5, extending what had been gleaned from the genomic analyses. Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil Host range studies revealed that rV5 is active against several other E. coli.”
“Systemic isosporosis, also known as atoxoplasmosis, is a common parasitic disease of passerines. Infection is thought to be endemic

in wild birds with fulminant, fatal disease occurring under the influence of stress, concurrent infections, or immunosuppression. Here, we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of the cellular infiltrate occurring in captive colonies of American goldfinches and house sparrows. Necropsies were performed on 9 birds, and histologic examination check details was performed on the intestines

of 7 additional birds. Lesions were most severe in the proximal small intestines. Histologically, the changes ranged from variably intense infiltrates of lymphocytes that filled the lamina propria to sheets of large, atypical cells that expanded and obliterated normal mucosal epithelium and invaded through the wall of the intestine and into the ceolomic cavity. Both the 123 smaller lymphocytes and large atypical cells were immunoreactive for CD3. Intracellular parasites consistent with Isospora were detected in the large atypical cells, but they were more easily detectable in the more differentiated lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation performed on tissues from 7 birds were negative for retroviruses and herpesvirus. The immunohistochemical results of this study and the destructive nature of the cellular infiltrate suggest that the lesion represents T-cell lymphoma. In birds, lymphomas are most often associated with herpes and retroviruses; the absence of these viruses suggests that the parasite initiated neoplastic transformation.

Given that non-virulent Mycobacterium smegmatis also controls act

Given that non-virulent Mycobacterium smegmatis also controls actin filament assembly to prolong its intracellular survival inside host cells, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis to assess the modulation of miRNAs upon M. smegmatis infection of the murine M phi cell line, J774A.1.

This approach identified miR-142-3p as a key candidate to be involved in the regulation of actin selleck screening library dynamics required in phagocytosis. We unequivocally demonstrate that miR-142-3p targets N-Wasp, an actin-binding protein required during microbial challenge. A gain-of-function approach for miR-142-3p 4 revealed a down-regulation of N-Wasp expression accompanied by a decrease of mycobacteria intake, while a loss-of-function approach

yielded the reciprocal increase of the phagocytosis process. Equally important, we show Mtb induces the early expression of miR-142-3p and partially down-regulates N-Wasp protein levels in both the murine J774A.1 cell line and primary human M phi s. As proof of principle, the partial siRNA-mediated knock down of N-Wasp resulted in a decrease of Mtb intake by human M phi s, reflected in lower levels of colony-forming units (CFU) counts over time. We therefore propose the modulation of miRNAs as a novel strategy in mycobacterial infection to control factors involved in actin filament assembly and other early events of phagolysosome biogenesis.”
“Purpose\n\nTo determine whether the Conrad Program, which allows states to recruit 30 foreign-trained

physicians per year to work in underserved settings, is meeting its goal of increasing LOXO-101 manufacturer the number of physicians in Washington State’s underserved areas. Trichostatin A inhibitor Participating physicians have completed their residency training in, and want to continue residing in, the United States.\n\nMethod\n\nThe authors identified all J-1 visa waiver physicians assigned to employers in Washington between 1995 and 2003, tracked them (whenever possible) through public databases to their current locations, and surveyed them about their experiences in, and subsequent to, the program.\n\nResults\n\nThe authors tracked 141 of 155 physicians (91%). Of those 141, 77 (55%) responded to the survey. These respondents reported that they remained with their J-1 waiver employers a median of 23 (range: 0-120) months longer than their required commitment periods and that they remained in practices serving primarily underserved populations for, on average, 34 (0-120) consecutive months after fulfilling their commitments. After leaving J-1 waiver employers, 35 of 47 physicians (74%) who served in rural areas moved toward more urban areas, and 57% (80/141) still live in the state. Whereas most expressed satisfaction with the program, 29/77 (38%) felt employers should have shown them more respect.

We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and

We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and current seasonal vaccination could not provide protection.”
“A new series of 1,3-thiazole and benzo[d] thiazole derivatives 10-15 has been developed, characterized, and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 25-200 mu g/mL against Gram+ve organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram-ve selleck compound organisms such as Escherichia coli (E.

coli), and the fungal strain Aspergillus niger (A. niger) by the cup plate method. Ofloxacin and ketoconazole (10 mu g/mL) were used as reference standards for antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. Compounds 11 and 12 showed notable antibacterial and antifungal activities at higher concentrations (125-200 mu g/mL), whereas benzo[d] thiazole derivatives 13 and 14 were found to display significant antibacterial or antifungal activity (50-75 mu g/mL) against the Gram+ve, Gram-ve bacteria, or fungal cells used in the present study. In addition, a correlation between calculated and determined partition coefficient (log P) was established which allows future development of compounds within this series to be carried out based on calculated log P values. Moreover, compounds 13 and 14 show that the optimum logarithm of partition coefficient

(log P) should be around 4.”
“Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by activating the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor. Some studies have demonstrated that the autoantibodies against angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1-AAs) cause selleck chemical functional effects, which is similar to those observed for Selleckchem PD0332991 the natural agonist

Ang II. In this study, we investigated the effects of AT1-AAs on cardiomyocytes’ structure and function. Male Wistar rats were immunized with synthetic peptides corresponding to the second extracellular loop of AT1 receptor and Freund’s adjuvant. The titers of AT1-AAs in rat serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay every week. Hemodynamic analysis and heart weight (HW) indices were measured on the 4th and 8th months after initial immunization, respectively. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used to observe the hypertrophic effects of AT1-AAs. Results showed that systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly increased, the titers of AT1-AAs were also increased after 4 weeks of initial immunization. Compared with control group, the HW/body weight (BW) and left ventricular weight/BW of immunized rats were increased significantly and cardiac function was enhanced compensatively. The cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes respond to AT1-AAs stimulation with increased 3H-leucine incorporation and cell surface area in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the AT1-AAs have an agonist effect similar to Ang II in hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in vivo and in vitro.

Despite consuming and emitting c a 20% more than the SE pathway,

Despite consuming and emitting c.a. 20% more than the SE pathway, the oil obtained by SFE, proved to be more economically viable, with a cost of 365(sic)/kg(oil) produced and Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor simultaneously extracting high-value pigments. The bioH(2) as co-product may be advantageous in terms of product yield or profit. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Spironolactone is effective at treating difficult to control hypertension in the general population,

and it is unknown if it is safe or effective for those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and difficult-to-control hypertension. In a retrospective cohort design, 88 patients with difficult-to-control hypertension study were assessed for blood pressure (BP) response to spironolactone as well as for biochemical changes. In the CKD group (34 patients), the average systolic BP (SBP) fell from 153 18 to 143 20 mm Hg (P = .006) compared with a fall in SBP from 150 17 to 135 17 mm Hg (P < .0001) in the non-CKD group (P < .0001). In 44% of those with CKD and 59% of those without CKD, SBP decreased by >10 mm Hg (defined as responders; P = .22). Potassium rose by 0.5 +/- 0.6 mmol/L in the CKD group and 0.3 +/- 0.5 mmol/L in the non-CKD group (P = .12). The overall incidence of hyperkalemia was

5.7% in the CKD group and 0% in the non-CKD group (P = .07). Spironolactone is associated with a significant fall in BP among those with CKD and difficult-to-control BMS-754807 inhibitor BP. It is associated with a modest rise in serum potassium, which is more pronounced among those with glomerular filtration rate below 45 mL/minute. J Am Soc Hypertens 2010;4(6):295-301. (C) 2010 American Society of Hypertension. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND & AIMS: Advanced liver disease is a significant risk factor for perioperative complications after cardiac surgery. However, no published studies have adjusted the observed outcomes for other well-known, non-liver-related factors that affect mortality. We evaluated the effects of cirrhosis on operative mortality and morbidity after cardiac surgery,

Thiazovivin Cell Cycle inhibitor after adjusting for nonrelated risk factors associated with liver disease. METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with cirrhosis who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass from 1992 to 2009 (n = 54). Patients who underwent cardiac surgery at the same institution were identified during the same time period and matched 1: 4 by using propensity score matching (controls, n = 216). Child-Pugh (CP) class and score were calculated for the patients with cirrhosis. Mortality and morbidity were determined after 30 and 90 days. RESULTS: Within 90 days, 4.6% of patients with CP score <8 and 70% of patients with CP score >= 8 died (P < .017). Mortality of patients with CP score <8 was comparable to that of matched controls.

CMV-, EBV- and ADV-specific T cells were enumerated in 170

CMV-, EBV- and ADV-specific T cells were enumerated in 170 G-CSF-mobilized stem cell and 24 non-mobilized platelet donors using 14 HLA-matched multimers. T-cell

function was evaluated by IFN-gamma ELISpot and granzyme B secretion. Immunophenotyping was performed by multicolor flow cytometry. G-CSF treatment did not significantly influence frequency of antiviral T cells nor their in vitro expansion rate upon antigen restimulation. However, T-cell function was significantly impaired, as expressed by a mean reduction JNK-IN-8 in secretion of IFN-gamma (75% in vivo, 40% in vitro) and granzyme B (32% target-independent, 76% target-dependent) as well as CD107a expression (27%). Clinical follow up data indicate that the first CMV-reactivation in patients and with it the need for T-cell transfer occurs while the

donor is still under the influence of G-CSF. To overcome these limitations, T-cell banking before mobilization or recruitment of third party donors might be an option to optimize T-cell production.”
“We recently introduced a homogeneous immunoassay based on time-resolved Frster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) elicited by fluorophore-labeled antigen and fluorophore-labeled protein L, bound by an immunoglobulin. As the first clinical application, we employ this approach (LFRET) in serodiagnosis of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. A reference panel Proteases inhibitor containing serum from individuals with acute (n = 21) or past (n = 17) PUUV infection and from PUUV-seronegative individuals (n = 20) was used to define the parameters. The clinical assay performance was evaluated with a prospectively collected serum panel (panel 2; n = 153). Based on the

results for panel 1, the threshold for positivity was set at a signal level that was 3-fold over background, while those with a signal smaller than 3-fold over the background level were considered PUUV seronegative. With panel 1, 20/21 acute-and 7/10 past-infection 123 samples induced positive signals, compared to 0/20 seronegatives. With panel 2, a positive signal was obtained in 39/40 acute-and 4/10 past-infection samples, as opposed to 7/103 seronegatives. However, after IgG depletion, 58/61 acute-infection samples were LFRET positive, while all past-infection and seronegative samples were negative, corresponding to 100% Bromosporine in vitro specificity and 95% sensitivity in detection of acute PUUV infection. We demonstrate that the novel immunoassay is a promising tool for rapid serodiagnosis of acute Puumala virus infection.”
“New series of thiourea derivatives incorporating a hippuric acid moiety have been synthesized through the reaction of 4-hippuric acid isothiocyanate with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, sulfa drugs, aminopyrazoles, phenylhydrazine and hydrazides. The synthesized compounds were tested against bacterial and fungal strains.

We have therefore engineered a novel electron transfer pathway fr

We have therefore engineered a novel electron transfer pathway from water to a soluble protein electron carrier without harming the

normal function of photosystem II.”
“Objective We aimed to clarify the prevalence of preexisting Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) defined by the Japanese buy JIB-04 original criteria among patients with non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI).\n\nMethods This is a retrospective cohort study using the computer database obtained by the preliminary health checkup from April 2003 to December 2008. We extracted the subjects with newly developed non-fatal MI from the study population. The newly non-fatal MI was diagnosed by the history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and new appearance of abnormal Q wave on electrocardiograms. MetS was diagnosed by using the Japanese original criteria.

If waist circumference was not available, BMI was used alternatively. We evaluated the prevalence of preexisting MetS and other risk factors of CHD among the subjects. We compared the prevalence of preexisting risk factors between MetS group and non-MetS group.\n\nResults From a study population of 298,455 subjects, 446 subjects with a history of CHD were found. Among the 446, 92 subjects (85 men and 7 women) with abnormal Q wave on electrocardiogram were found. The prevalence of preexisting MetS with non-fatal MI was 19.6% (95% CI; 15.5-23.7%). The prevalence of other preexisting risk factors were 60.0% with smoking history, 55.6% with over-work, 53.3% with stressful life and 36.1% with impaired glucose tolerance. These prevalence rates were not significantly different between selleck chemicals MetS group and non-MetS group. Only the prevalence (22.3%) of elevated LDL-cholesterol in the non-MetS group was significantly higher than in the MetS group (14.4%).\n\nConclusion Preexisting MetS may be able to predict only 20% of future MI. To prevent future myocardial infarction, precaution guidance may be required for people CA3 ic50 with not only preexisting MetS but also other preexisting risk factors of CHD.”
“SPORL (Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocellulose)

pretreatment was applied to switchgrass and optimized through an experimental design using Response Surface Methodology within the range of temperature (163-197 degrees C), time (3-37 min), sulfuric acid dosage (0.8-4.2% on switchgrass), and sodium sulfite dosage (0.6-7.4% on switchgrass). Performance of SPORL was compared with that of dilute acid (DA) and alkali (AL) in switchgrass pretreatment. Results indicated that SPORL pretreatment improved the digestibility of switchgrass through sufficiently removing hemicellulose, partially dissolving lignin, and reducing hydrophobicity of lignin by sulfonation. The removal of hemicellulose was more critical to substrate digestibility than the removal of lignin during SPORL pretreatment.

Thus, the effects of naloxone on oxygen- and glucose-deprivation

Thus, the effects of naloxone on oxygen- and glucose-deprivation (OGD) and OGD followed by reoxygenation. (OGD/R) on

the expression of IEGs were examined in PC12 cells. The result showed that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the media was reduced by naloxone. The temporal response of IEG mRNA encoding c-fos, c-jun, nur77, and zif268 was induced with different degree of Selleckchem ON-01910 intensity following hypoxia, whereas the level of GAPDH mRNA was relatively constant. However, these signals of c-fos, c-jun, and nur77 by hypoxia were reduced significantly by naloxone. Treatment with OGD also activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The induction of c-fos, c-jun, nur77, and zif268 by hypoxia was inhibited by naloxone (0.1 mu M) and MAPK inhibitors (10 mu M of U0126, D98059, SB203580). However, naloxone increased the expression of ERK1/2 by OGD concomitantly diminished the LDH release. Thus, the present studies demonstrated

that OGD induced IEGs including c-fos, c-jun, nur77, and zif268 and MAPK signaling pathways were regulated differently by naloxone. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of this case report is to review the management of a boy with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome with deep-brain stimulation who had remission of self-injurious behaviors as a result. This patient was treated with intrathecal baclofen and, later, with deep-brain stimulation to reduce hypertonia. Goals were to improve wheelchair positioning Adriamycin nmr for school attendance and to reduce the use of restraints for comfort. Intrathecal DMXAA research buy baclofen was implanted twice and decreased the hypertonia, but both were explanted because of infection. Deep-brain stimulation was initiated 2.5 years ago, and since that time, comfort and function have improved and caregiver burden has decreased. Improvements in dystonia with deep-brain stimulation have also occurred, and self-injurious behaviors have resolved.”
“We investigated the adsorption and decomposition of sulfamethazine (SMT), which is used as

a synthetic antibacterial agent and discharged into environmental water, using high-silica Y-type zeolite (HSZ-385), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and TiO2-zeolite composites. By using ultrapure water and secondary effluent as solvents, we prepared SMT solutions (10 mu g/L and 10 mg/L) and used them for adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition experiments. When HSZ-385 was used as an adsorbent, rapid adsorption of SMT in the secondary effluent was confirmed, and the adsorption reached equilibrium within 10 min. The photocatalytic decomposition rate using TiO2 in the secondary effluent was lower than that in ultrapure water, and we clarified the inhibitory effect of ions and organic matter contained in the secondary effluent on the reaction. We synthesized TiO2-zeolite composites and applied them to the removal of SMT.

The average choroidal thickness of the APAC eyes at each location

The average choroidal thickness of the APAC eyes at each location or segment was compared to that of the fellow eyes.\n\nRESULTS. At all macular locations, the choroidal thickness was greatest at the subfovea for both groups. Comparison of the choroidal thickness between the groups showed that the thickness in the APAC eyes was significantly greater than in the PACS eyes at all locations except at 1 mm, 3 mm superior, 3 mm inferior, and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P < 0.005). The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 349.0 +/- 78.1 mu m in the APAC eyes and 308.1 +/- 70.5

mu m in the PACS eyes, with a statistically 432 significant difference (P < 0.005). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed Ro-3306 concentration that the subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly greater in association with the APAC diagnosis and diastolic blood pressure and thinner in association with older subjects.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. APAC eyes have a higher level of macular choroidal thickness than PACS eyes when the IOP

is reduced. However, the source of this difference is unclear and selleck must be investigated further.”
“AIM: To study the expression of beta-catenin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at stage T2-3N0M0 and its relation with the prognosis of ESCC patients.\n\nMETHODS: Expression of beta-catenin in 227 ESCC specimens was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A reproducible semi-quantitative method which takes both staining percentage and intensity into account was applied in IHC scoring, and receiver operating characteristic curve this website analysis was used to select the cut-off score for high or low IHC reactivity. Then, correlation of beta-catenin expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of ESCC patients was determined.\n\nRESULTS: No significant correlation was observed between beta-catenin expression and clinicopathological parameters in terms of gender, age, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor location, depth of invasion

and pathological stage. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the up-regulated expression of beta-catenin indicated a poorer post-operative survival rate of ESCC patients at stage T2-3N0M0 (P = 0.004), especially of those with T3 lesions (P = 0.014) or with stage IIB diseases (P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis also confirmed that beta-catenin was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival rate of ESCC patients at stage T2-3N0M0 (relative risk = 1.642, 95% CI: 1.159-2.327, P = 0.005).\n\nCONCLUSION: Elevated beta-catenin expression level may be an adverse indicator for the prognosis of ESCC patients at stage T2-3N0M0, especially for those with T3 lesions or stage IIB diseases. (C) 2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.