, 2012) As previously noted, early successional structures also

, 2012). As previously noted, early successional structures also are in short supply and their scarcity threatens some species ( Litvaitis, 2001, Swanson et al., 2010 and Greenberg et al., 2011). A landscape of managed forest stands of similar structure

(and possibly age) can be transformed using variable retention harvesting ( Fig. 14). The amount of retained stems (or basal area) can be varied, as well as the spatial arrangement of retention stems, either aggregated or dispersed (e.g., Sullivan selleck screening library et al., 2001). Diversity and spatial arrangements of microhabitats can influence successful dispersal by animals into restored sites and considerable time may be needed for some components to develop ( Vesk et al., 2008). For example, Christie et al. (2013) found that placing small woody debris piles near intact Jarrah forest in southwestern Australia

facilitated colonization of restored mined sites by Napolean’s skink (Egernia napoleonis). Legacies from past land use or from previous stands may influence Crenolanib clinical trial the restoration trajectory (Foster et al., 1998, Foster et al., 2003 and Kettle et al., 2000). From the perspective of restoration objectives, such legacies may be beneficial or detrimental. As discussed earlier, deadwood in its various forms and conditions provides desirable function by providing habitat and other resources to a wide variety of species (Harmon et al., 1986). When it is missing in a managed stand, actions to restore it are needed. Conversely, when it is present in a managed stand, actions to maintain

selleck products it as an important legacy are needed, particularly after regeneration harvesting (Boddy, 2001 and Nordén et al., 2004). As Jonsson et al. (2005) pointed out, no single target volume of deadwood exists that meets the requirements of all species, so they recommended that a variety of deadwood be maintained because all types of deadwood probably have associated species. Desirable amounts of deadwood may be ascertained from old forest stands that have been conservatively managed or protected (e.g., Fridman and Walheim, 2000). Quality of deadwood is primarily determined by size and stage of decay (Jonsson et al., 2005); in managed forests, deadwood size is skewed toward smaller diameters (Fridman and Walheim, 2000, Jonsson et al., 2005 and Brumelis et al., 2011), therefore often the challenge in restoration is to create larger diameter deadwood. Undesirable legacies in forests are numerous (Foster et al., 2003) and often so ingrained in the landscape that their influence on forest development is taken for granted. These include eroded or infertile soil, depauperate species composition from exploitive harvesting (Allen et al., 2001) or high herbivore pressure (Nuttle et al., 2013), altered drainage (Yaalon and Yaron, 1966, Gardiner and Oliver, 2005 and Hughes et al.

01, 0 10, 1, and 10 EU/mL One hundred microliters of the blank w

01, 0.10, 1, and 10 EU/mL. One hundred microliters of the blank was used according to standard endotoxin concentrations (ie, 0.01, 0.10, 1, and 10 EU/mL), and 100 μL of the samples was added in a 96-well microplate with respective PPC. All reactions were achieved in duplicate to validate the test. The test procedure and calculation of the endotoxin

level were performed following the manufacturer’s instructions. The absorbencies of endotoxin were individually measured Osimertinib purchase by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plate-reader (Ultramark, Bio-Rad Laboratories) at 340 nm. The spike procedure was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions by the addition of a known concentration value of endotoxin for each LAL method in order to detect any Natural Product Library nmr possible inhibition or enhancement from the samples in relation to the LAL substrate. To verify

the lack of product inhibition, an aliquot of test sample (or a dilution of test sample) is spiked with a known amount of endotoxin (0.4 EU/mL). The spiked solution is assayed along with the unspiked samples, and their respective endotoxin concentrations are determined. The difference between these two calculated endotoxin values should be equal to the known concentration of the spike ±25%. For the kinetic tests (chromogenic kinetic assay and turbidimetric assay), the WinkQCL Software (LONZA, Walkersville, MD) was used to calculate the amount of endotoxin recovered in the positive product control (PPC) in the comparison with the known amount of endotoxin spiked. The endotoxin recovered should be equal to the known concentration of the spike or within 50% to 200% as determined by the pharmacopeia. If positive, Palmatine the test was considered validated because a good interaction between the samples and LAL substrate was shown without interfering with the recovery of endotoxin. The linearity of the standard curve within the concentration range used

to determine the endotoxin values were verified for all tests according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The absolute value of the correlation coefficient (r value) of the calculated standard curve had to be ≥0.980. Replicates were run in order to assess the technique and coefficient of variation. The percentage of the coefficient of variation for replicates of a sample had to be less than 10%. Reproducibility between 3% and 4% was considered the best as indicated by the manufacturer’s instructions. After the measurement of endotoxin, if the levels of endotoxin were out of the standard curve or if any possible interference with LAL method by the root canal samples was detected, serial dilutions were considered and reassayed. The endotoxin values were statistically analyzed by using SPSS for WINDOWS, version 12.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). The comparison between the chromogenic endpoint and chromogenic and turbidimetric kinetic methods was performed by using the Friedman test (p < 0.05).

For tetracyclic triterpene glycosides, many of the methine and me

For tetracyclic triterpene glycosides, many of the methine and methylene proton signals overlapped upfield, and many of the oxygenated-methine and oxygenated-methylene proton signals of sugars overlapped in 1H-NMR spectra. Thus, one-dimensional NMR techniques were not useful for identification of those protons. To date, peak assignments in NMR data for tetracyclic triterpene glycosides have been based on previously reported data. However, many of the earlier data might be erroneous because of instrument-resolution limitations. selleck inhibitor Little NMR data are available for 20-gluco-ginsenoside Rf (4), the chemical name of

which is 6-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,6α,12β,20β-tetrahydroxydammar-24-ene. In this study, the definite assignment of NMR data of the compound was established for the first time by extensive NMR experiments including correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, HSQC, and HMBC (Tables 2 and 3). By normal-phase silica gel TLC (CHCl3–MeOH–H2O = 65:35:10), Rf values were 0.27 for Re (1), 0.37 for Rf (2), 0.51 for Rg2 (3), and 0.28 for 20-gluco Rf (4). Reverse-phase ODS TLC (MeOH–H2O = 2:1) yielded Rf values of 0.57, 0.29, 0.13, and 0.65,

respectively. In 10% H2SO4 with heating, each compound was light purple on TLC. HPLC retention times were 27.1 min for Re (1), 20.6 min for Rf (2), 10.3 min for Rg2 (3), and 30.2 min for 20-gluco Rf (4). All contributing authors declare no conflicts Talazoparib nmr of interest. This research was supported by a grant of the Next-Generation Bio-Green 21 Program (No. PJ009544) Project from the Rural Development Administration, Korea. “
“Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

is one of the most important medicinal plants and is particularly prized in Asian countries [1] and [2]. It has been a popular medicine for thousands of years in East Asia [3]. Ginseng is a deciduous perennial herb belonging to the PRKACG family Araliaceae. Most Panax species including P. ginseng are indigenous to East Asia, but two species are found in Eastern North America [4]. Among them, P. ginseng (Korean ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) have been the most widely cultivated and marketed in various commercial products because of their prominent medicinal effects, including immune system stimulation [5], anticarcinogenic activity, and reduction of blood glucose levels [6]. The two species are morphologically similar even though their origins were continentally separated by the Pacific Ocean. Most P. ginseng production is centralized in Korea and Northeast China, whereas P. quinquefolius is cultivated in China, Canada, and the United States. P. ginseng contains more than 30 kinds of triterpenoid saponin glycosides, commonly called ginsenosides, as well as other phytochemical compounds [7], [8] and [9].

In the proofreading block, every sentence was followed by a quest

In the proofreading block, every sentence was followed by a question asking, “Was there a spelling error?” After subjects finished proofreading each sentence they had to answer “yes” or “no” with the triggers. The experimental session lasted for approximately forty-five minutes to one hour. Data

were analyzed using inferential statistics based on generalized linear mixed-effects models (LMMs). In the LMMs, task (reading vs. proofreading), target type (predictability item vs. frequency item, where applicable), and independent variable value (high vs. low, where applicable, or filler (error-free in the reading block) vs. error (in the proofreading block), where applicable) were centered and entered as fixed effects, and subjects and items were entered as crossed random effects, including intercepts and slopes (see Baayen, Davidson, Selleckchem Alectinib BMS-777607 clinical trial & Bates, 2008), using the maximal random effects structure (Barr, Levy, Scheepers, & Tily, 2013). For models that did not converge before reaching the iteration limit, we removed random effects that accounted for the least variance and did not significantly improve the model’s fit to the data iteratively until the model did converge.3 In order to fit the LMMs, the lmer function from the lme4 package (Bates, Maechler, & Bolker, 2011) was used within the R Environment for Statistical Computing (R Development Core Team, 2009). For

fixation duration measures, we used linear mixed-effects regression, and report regression coefficients (b), which estimate the effect size (in milliseconds) of the reported comparison, and the t-value of the effect coefficient. For binary dependent variables (accuracy and fixation probability data), we use

logistic mixed-effects regression, and report regression coefficients (b), which represent effect size in log-odds space and the z value of the effect coefficient. Values of the t and z statistics greater than or equal Dapagliflozin to 1.96 indicate an effect that is significant at approximately the .05 level. Mean accuracy and error detection ability for proofreading are reported in Table 3. Overall, subjects performed very well both in the comprehension task (94% correct) and in the proofreading task (95% correct). Fixations shorter than 80 ms were combined with a previous or subsequent fixation if they were within one character of each other or were eliminated. Trials in which there was a blink or track loss during first pass reading on the target word or during an immediately adjacent fixation were removed (1% of the original number of trials). For each fixation duration measure, durations greater than 2.5 standard deviations from the subject’s mean (calculated separately across tasks) were also removed (less than 2% of the data from any measure were removed by this procedure). The remaining data were evenly distributed across conditions.

, 2005, Yang et al , 2006, Yang et al , 2011, Rossi et al , 2009,

, 2005, Yang et al., 2006, Yang et al., 2011, Rossi et al., 2009, Dang et al., 2010 and Wang et al., 2011). Large dams and reservoirs commonly reduce river discharges to the sea (Vörösmarty et al., 1997). A global estimate reveals that greater than 50% of basin-scale sediment flux in regulated basins is potentially trapped in artificial impoundments (Vörösmarty et al., 2003). Sedimentation also typically increases in riverbeds as a result of a loss of energy in the reduced flow, in addition http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Cisplatin.html to the entrapment of materials by the dams. Additionally, large dams regulate river flows between wet and dry seasons, for

flood-control and water consumption, which can further lead to significant reductions in water and sediment fluxes to the sea. In the Nile River, for example, sediment is sequestrated in Lake Nasser behind the High Dam, the extensive barrages, and in drainage and irrigation Sorafenib cost channels within the lower Nile delta, so that essentially no sediment

reaches Egypt’s Mediterranean coast (Stanley, 1996 and Milliman, 1997). Similarly, the Manwan reservoir in the upper reaches of Vietnam’s Mekong River (also known as the Langcangjiang River in China) have trapped a majority of the river’s sediment load since its construction in 1993 (Wang et al., 2011). More impressive has been the constructions of the world’s largest dams (>100 m in height) in Thymidylate synthase China’s Changjiang and Huanghe drainage basins, which are largely responsible for changing the rivers’ transport of material to the sea. The Huanghe once annually contributed ∼6% of the world’s terrestrial sediment supply to the global ocean. Now, dramatic changes have occurred, including a ∼90% reduction in annual water and sediment flux, ∼70% loss in suspended sediment

concentration, and coarsening grain sizes (Wang et al., 2011 and Yu et al., 2013). These changes induced by humans are so substantial that few large rivers around the world can match them. Previous work has addressed changes in the water and sediment delivery to the sea by the Huanghe (Yang et al., 1998, Xu, 2003, Wang et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2011 and Miao et al., 2011). Few papers, however, have directly quantified the effects of individual dams on the Huange. In this paper, we review the changes on the Huanghe caused by dams and focus on the effect of individual dams. In particular, we outline the Water-Sediment Modulation (WSM) though Xiaolangdi dam in regulating water and sediment delivery to the sea. Installed in 2002, WSM was designed to mitigate infilling of sediment behind the Xiaolangdi dam, and to scour the riverbeds in the lower reaches of the Huanghe that had been elevated due to sediment accumulation. The WSM serves as an example of river management for large dams in an era when storage capacity will soon be filled.

Among the goals of efficient management, guaranteeing tree recrui

Among the goals of efficient management, guaranteeing tree recruitment should be prominent. Wherever grazing proves to be a major limiting factor for seedling survival, livestock should be banned from some regeneration areas in

the forest. Reafforestation projects, establishing or expanding local nurseries for the production of high quality seeds and seedlings of native species (NAST, 2010), could also be promoted with the aim of increasing the forest cover. To thoroughly assess all these issues, further field-based research investigating the interaction between vegetation and environmental factors, as modified by anthropogenic interference, is highly recommended. The establishment of permanent research plots for long-term monitoring of the effects of environmental and human-induced factors on silvo-pastoral systems should be strongly encouraged, taking into account the possible selleck screening library impacts of the on-going climate change in the area (NAST, 2010, Nepal, GSK1210151A order 2013 and McDowell et al., 2013). Sustainable forest management of national parks with increasing human pressure from tourism activities

is currently a real challenge for land managers and scientists. In these protected areas the simplification of the forest structure is often more important than deforestation. This reduction of structural diversity, often called forest degradation, is in fact less obvious than deforestation, and for this reason more difficult to detect and manage. Research studies on the main causes and impacts of forest overexploitation should be promoted in other sensitive areas in order to contribute to increasing forest resilience and reversing the process

of environmental degradation. Forest degradation at Sagarmatha National Park has mostly resulted from the intensive thinning and overexploitation of small size rhododendron trees from the most accessible sites. Increased trekking tourism intensified shrub removal (especially Juniperus wallichiana) and exploitation for firewood, but the establishment of the SNP in 1976 delocalized human pressure to the Pharak forests that recently (2002) became the Buffer Zone of the SNP. In the absence of a sustainable land use policy diglyceride tourism can be a major driver of forest degradation. This issue is observed globally in many other protected areas where trekking tourism is responsible for socio-cultural changes that indirectly affect the traditional use of natural resources. Nowadays unregulated logging is one of the main causes of the lower diversity and density measured in the BZ, the current use of forest-related resources thus appears largely unsustainable and needs to be planned. A sustainable management of forest resources at SNP is imperative and should integrate different management actions (e.g. reafforestation projects, adaptive silvicultural practices and regulating livestock grazing), at the same time implementing a greater use of alternative energy sources.

48 After the fourth month of life, there is a decrease in periods

48 After the fourth month of life, there is a decrease in periods of inconsolable crying; the crying becomes more intentional and more related to environmental events.49 This same pattern was observed in reproductions of the study by Brazelton in a similar population, i.e., Western human infants50, 51, 52, 53 and 54 and in different populations, such as in studies with babies born in a hunter society from FG-4592 mouse northwest Botswana (Kung San!) with preterm human infants and non-primate mammal infants,55, 56, 57 and 58 suggesting that this pattern is robust and universal. Moreover, the fact that the Brazelton study has been replicated

in different selleck products eras is further evidence that this pattern of crying is universal, persisting over time. It is noteworthy that, although there are individual differences in the amount of time during which each baby cries a day, there is an increase in this average daily crying for all babies, with a peak and subsequent decrease. The crying pattern

also includes episodes of prolonged inconsolable and unpredictable crying, which typically occur in the late afternoon or early evening and are accompanied by facial expressions of pain and increased muscle tone.59 and 60 These characteristics of crying were usually associated with the occurrence of colic in babies. However, according to Barr et al., although these episodes occur

more frequently in infants who have frequent colic, they are not unique to this population. Moreover, according to these authors, these episodes are specific to the first months of the baby’s life, and do not commonly occur after this period.46 Although crying is normal for this period of the baby’s life, it can cause frustration and stress for the family, factors that appear to contribute to the occurrence of AHT.59 and 60 Barr et al. and Lee et al. investigated whether the curve of incidence of AHT cases Sorafenib molecular weight according to the victim’s age matched the curve of the mean duration of crying according to the baby’s age; the only difference between the studies was that in the former, the investigated AHT cases were recorded in California hospitals,59 whereas the second study investigated cases of AHT published by the media.60 The results of both studies indicated that the curves of crying and occurrence of AHT were quite similar, which provides empirical evidence for the assumption that crying is a precipitating factor for the occurrence of this form of maltreatment.59 and 60 According to Lee et al, confirmation of this assumption also offers further significant evidence for the importance of prevention programs for AHT that must occur at least until the second month of the baby’s life in order to be effective.

This represents a reduction of 9 1% and 3 5%, respectively, for a

This represents a reduction of 9.1% and 3.5%, respectively, for a mean stay of 4 days. The value of HAA in 2000 was adjusted

for inflation, based on the year 2010. Since the 1980s, the overall infant mortality trend and that caused by diarrhea are described as downwards, both in Brazil3, 12 and 13 and worldwide.2 and 6 However, learn more it has been reported that progress in the decease of global mortality has not been accelerated, when compared with three decades ago;7 the same was observed in Brazil in the previous decade.13 In parallel, a slow progress has been observed in the implementation of the new global recommendations for diarrhea control.1 Contaminated water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene still account for 88% of world deaths due to diarrhea.1 This slow progress in the management of diarrheal disease may be a factor contributing to the stabilization of infant mortality, since this disease is the second infectious cause of this indicator worldwide.1 and 2 It is fair to say that the current rates of mortality attributable to this disease in Brazil, albeit low, are still unacceptable. This is a disease transmitted via fecal-oral route; it is self-limited, preventable, of simple management at home with ORS, and does not Bortezomib mouse require technology or relatively high costs for its prevention. In some parts of Brazil, diarrhea is still

a major public health problem.3 The regional heterogeneity in mortality rates from diarrhea described here reflects the socioeconomic and cultural inequality, as well as the difficulty of access to health care and sanitation.The Northeast and Midwest showed higher rates of reduction in these coefficients when compared to the South and Southeast. Although these regions showed higher levels of these indicators in 2000, which could explain the higher rates of reduction, it is possible that this downward

trend is a reflection of national public health strategies, such as the Family Health program, training programs Methocarbamol for professionals on diarrheal disease monitoring, rotavirus vaccine campaigns, breastfeeding encouragement programs, and vitamin A supplementation. These strategies were implemented in important sectors, especially after the 1990s, with promising results on the impact of overall mortality, as well as mortality due to diarrheal disease, in children younger than 5 years.3, 14, 15, 16 and 17 It is possible that the recent investments aimed at reducing inequalities have been an important factor on infant mortality due to diarrhea in some regions;3 however, this assumption should be taken with caution due to the limitation of academic studies on infant mortality in regions such as the North and the Midwest.13 Such prevention strategies were considered models for export;16 however, regarding the treatment of diarrhea, Brazil does not explicitly adopt the recommendation of low-osmolarity ORS (66 countries) and zinc supplementation (46 countries).

11 This test was performed by inflating a pneumatic cuff around t

11 This test was performed by inflating a pneumatic cuff around the upper arm to 50 mm Hg above the systolic pressure for 3 min to follow the evolution of StO2. NIRS is a technique that utilizes near-infrared light to measure chromophores in tissues. The analysis of changes in StO2 during

a brief episode of forearm Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor ischemia enables quantification of microvascular dysfunction. This vasoreactivity test evaluates a different aspect of microvascular function than flow; it evaluates microvascular oxygen uptake reserve more than actual microvascular perfusion. At baseline, the following data were recorded; general characteristics, severity of illness with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV9 and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA),10

Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), use of vasopressors and mechanical ventilation. Systemic hemodynamics, SDF and NIRS measurements were recorded at start study (T1), after 12 h (T2) and 24 h (T3). Length of stay in de ICU and survival status of each participant was confirmed. The moment of start study (T1) is as soon as the patient reached the targeted temperature. The primary endpoint of this study was sublingual microcirculatory blood flow as defined by microcirculatory flow index (MFI) at T1, T2 and T3. Secondary endpoints were StO2, descending and ascending slope, fluid balance after the first 24 h, use of inotropes and vasopressor dose, cardiac index, lactate, and SvO2. Bortezomib in vivo In general, all data were tested

for normal distribution with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Histograms and normal-quantile plots were visually inspected to verify the normality of distribution of continuous variables. First the demographic characteristics were analyzed. Variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation or medians and interquartile ranges according their distribution. Secondly, the microcirculation as the primary outcome was compared. To test differences in microcirculatory blood flow using SDF, expressed as MFI, we used the Mann–Whitney U test. To analyze differences in time courses StO2 Anova for Adenosine triphosphate repeated measurements followed by paired t-test or non-parametric was used as necessary. A Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple comparison. Finally the hemodynamic and biological data were compared. Variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation or medians and interquartile ranges according to their distribution. Differences between group means were tested by the student t-test or Mann–Whitney U test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 19 for Windows, Chicago, IL, USA) is used for statistical analyses. All adult patients between March 2012 and January 2013, admitted to the ICU after an OHCA, were screened for this study. Out of 36 eligible patients 22 were included. Informed consent could not be obtained in 14 cases (see Fig. 1).

These novel findings should profit to clarify the participations

These novel findings should profit to clarify the participations of Helios in molecular mechanisms of negative selection and B cell-specific regulation of the O2−-generating system in immature B lymphocytes. PMA, Go6976 and Rottlerin (Calbiochem, Darmstadt, Germany), ionomycin (Sigma, St Louis, MO) were obtained. We constructed Helios-disruption vectors as follows

(Fig. 1A). www.selleckchem.com/products/dinaciclib-sch727965.html Partial genomic Helios DNA fragments were obtained from DT40 genomic DNA by means of PCR based on nucleotide sequences from the Web Bursal database and confirmed by the PCR sequencing protocol. The upstream fragment, an EcoRI/BamHI digested 2.8-kb PCR fragment (obtained using sense primer 5′-GATTGTAAGGAACAAGAGCCTGTGATGGAC-3′ from exon 7 and antisense primer 5′-TCTGGATCCTGGATAGCCAAGTCTCATGAC-3′ from exon 8 (BamHI site was underlined)), and the downstream fragment, an AscI/XhoI digested 1.9-kb PCR fragment (obtained using sense primer 5′-TTAGGCGCGCCAGCTGATACAGTCTCAAAT-3′ from exon 8 and antisense primer 5′-ACTCTCGAGTGAAGTTGGGGTAGTTCC-3′ from intron 8 (AscI and XhoI sites were underlined)) were transferred into the pBluescript II vector. Two cassettes, carrying hygromycin and blasticidin S resistance genes, transcribed by the chicken β-actin promoter, were inserted between the upstream selleckchem and downstream arms. Transfection was carried out essentially as described [32] and [33].

Genomic DNAs were digested with HindIII, separated in a 0.8% agarose gel, transferred to a Hybond N+ membrane, and then hybridized with 32P-labeled probe Helios (see Fig. 1A) as described [32] and [33]. DT40 cells and all subclones were cultured essentially as described [19], [32], [33], [34], [35] and [36]. Apoptosis was induced as follows. Cells (2×106) in 10 ml of culture medium

were incubated with 10 ng/ml PMA plus 1 μM ionomycin at 37 °C up to 24 h. Treatments with inhibitors Go6976 or Rottlerin were carried out as follows. Cells (2×106) in 10 ml of culture medium were treated with each inhibitor (1 μM) at 37 °C for 1 h, and thereafter incubated with 10 ng/ml PMA and 1 μM ionomycin at 37 °C for 24 h in the Methocarbamol presence of the PKC inhibitors. Viable cells were counted by the trypan blue dye exclusion method. DNA fragmentation assay was carried out as described [37]. Total RNAs were isolated from DT40 and all subclones. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed using sense and antisense primers for appropriate genes, which were synthesized according to the sequence data deposited in GenBank as described [32], [33] and [34]. Chicken GAPDH gene was used as internal controls. PCR products were subjected to 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Data obtained by semiquantitative RT-PCR before reaching the plateau were analyzed by Image Gauge software Profile mode (densitometrical analysis mode) using a luminescent image analyzer LAS-1000plus (Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan). O2− was quantified by measuring chemiluminescence using Diogenes-luminol chemiluminescence probes [36] and [38].