24; Erickson et al., 2012], whereas C. porosus is an intermediate-snouted form (adult rostral proportion of 0.41; Erickson et al., 2012). Alligator mississippiensis has a broad snout (adult rostral proportion Trichostatin A chemical structure of 0.69; Erickson et al., 2012). The protocols for this research were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of The Florida
State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA (Permit Number: 0011). All research was undertaken following the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. No specimens were injured during this research. Growth series from neonate to somatically mature adults of captive C. johnsoni (n = 24) and C. porosus (n = 26) were accessed for bite-force experimentation from the research and display holdings of Crocodylus Park, Darwin, AUS and the St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, St. AZD3965 Augustine, FL, USA. Crocodylus johnsoni specimens ranged in body mass from 0.05 to 60.5 kg, and those of C. porosus ranged from 0.10 to 531 kg. Data for a comparable growth series (0.08–297 kg) of A. mississippiensis (n = 41) from the St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park (Erickson et al., 2003) were utilized for comparison with the Crocodylus specimens. Maximum bite forces were obtained using transducers
specifically designed for use on crocodylians (see Erickson et al., 2003 for schematics and specifications). Each device was used on a specific size category of specimens in order to mitigate variance from forces
generated at different gape angles between small-, medium- and large-sized individuals. The smallest apparatus 上海皓元 is stainless steel with a cantilever-beam design, to which four uniaxial foil-model strain gauges (FLA-3-11-3L, TML Tokyo Sokki Kendyujo Co. Ltd, Tokyo, JPN) are mounted in a full-bridge configuration (Dechow & Carlson, 1983). This device was used for specimens <90 cm total length (TL; n = 12). The medium-sized device utilizes a single piezoelectric force transducer placed between two stainless steel plates (range of 0–4450 N, ≤1% error; Type 9000M057, Kistler Instrument Corp., Amherst, NY, USA) and was used for individuals between 90 and 200 cm TL (n = 27). The largest device houses four piezoelectric force transducers, also placed between two stainless steel plates (range of 0–22 250 N, ≤1% error; Type 9000 M056, Kistler Instrumental Corp.), and was used for specimens >200 cm TL (n = 11). To protect the animal’s teeth during biting events and provide a consistent bite point, leather pads were adhered to both the upper and lower plates of each apparatus (2.5 mm, 6 mm or 12 mm thick for the small-, medium- and large devices, respectively). Notably, comparisons of bite-force experiments in vertebrates with padded and unpadded/non-compliant bite surfaces have shown significant differences in the forces elicited by same-sized individuals.