20 The more clinically relevant studies involve administering rTM

20 The more clinically relevant studies involve administering rTMS to patients with clinical chronic pain conditions. We identified 24 publications between 2001 and 2013 that assessed efficacy of rTMS for treating chronic pain. Among them,

15 assessed the effects of a single session only of TMS (Table 1). While 12/15 reported pain relief, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the effects of a single rTMS session are transitory and therefore inadequate for clinical management of chronic pain, so their relevance for clinical practice is limited. Table 2 summarizes the nine studies that evaluated the effects of multiple rTMS sessions on chronic pain. Four studies used five consecutive days of treatment, and five involved two consecutive weeks of five sessions of weekday TMS. Among them, 6/9 showed significant pain reduction. Importantly, it was found that consecutive

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sessions of weekday rTMS extended the effects of a single session of rTMS to produce residual pain relief that can persist even after rTMS is discontinued, which is the cornerstone of clinical benefit.17 Publications report that these residual effects Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical can last up to two weeks, but in clinical use, some patients are able to buy Tenofovir maintain pain relief with once-monthly sessions of rTMS, so this requires better characterization. The mechanisms are not known but presumably involve neuronal plasticity, such as that triggered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by other situations involving repeated neuronal firing. Accordingly it is suggested that maintenance therapy, which consists of a priming week or weeks, of daily weekday rTMS sessions, followed by maintenance sessions at longer intervals, will maintain long-lasting effects. To date, only one study of 40 fibromyalgia patients assessed long-term rTMS maintenance therapy.41 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The protocol comprised one priming week of daily weekday rTMS, then one session weekly

for 3 weeks, three sessions at fortnightly intervals, followed by three monthly sessions; TMS ended at week 21. Reduced pain intensity and improved quality of life measures were demonstrated between day 5 through week Metalloexopeptidase 25, 4 weeks after the TMS stopped.41 Table 1 Studies Assessing Effects of One Session of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of the Motor Cortex on Chronic Pain. Table 2 Studies Assessing Effects of Multiple Sessions of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of the Motor Cortex on Chronic Pain. Since the TMS treatment parameters varied among the published studies it is difficult to determine which specific parameters are best for clinical use. Complicating matters further, only 10 of 24 studies recruited homogeneous populations of patients, precluding certainty about which conditions are most responsive to TMS.

Samples and survey data were collected during the dry months of J

Samples and survey data were collected during the dry months of June–August of 2004, coinciding with AP24534 order the period of increased malaria transmission in Rondonia State. Written informed consent was obtained from all adult donors or from parents of donors in the case of minors. The study was reviewed and approved by

the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Ethical Committee and the National Ethical Committee of Brazil. To evaluate epidemiological factors that may influence the cellular immune response against PvMSP9, all donors were interviewed upon informed consent. Questions in the survey related to demographics, time of residence in the endemic area, personal and family histories of

malaria, use of malaria prophylaxis, presence of malaria symptoms, and personal knowledge of malaria. Survey data was recorded and entered into a database created with Epi Info 2002 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA). Venous peripheral blood was collected into heparinized tubes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated by Ficoll/Hypaque (Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ) density gradient centrifugation and used in the ELISPOT Enzalutamide cost assays within the first 12 h after collection. Plasma was stored at −20 °C and thin and thick blood smears of all donors were examined for malaria parasites. Parasitological evaluation by examination of 200 fields at 1000×

magnification under oil-immersion, all slides were examined by a researcher expertise Parvulin in malaria diagnosis. Donors positive for P. vivax and/or P. falciparum at the time of blood collection were subsequently treated per the chemotherapeutic regimen recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. HLA-DR binding frames along the primary structure of PvMSP9 were detected by ProPred analysis. The amino acid sequence of PvMSP9 was scanned to identify promiscuous MHC binding peptides using virtual matrices designed for 51 HLA-DR alleles [15]. Eleven sequences were identified within the Modulators N-terminal region of PvMSP9 which were predicted to bind at least 40% HLA-DR alleles included in the ProPed algorithm at a 3% threshold. Synthetic peptides representing such putative T-cell epitopes were synthesized at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins and Peptides, Institute Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz. The complete amino acid sequences of five out of 11 synthetic peptides (including 3 overlapping regions) that induced the highest cellular response and the relative amino acid position were: (1) peptide pE (V147–K159), VVHKLNKKMKSLK; (2) peptide pH (V438–D449), VSLMASIDSMID; (3) peptide pJ (K325–I339), KLKDILLRVLYKTYI; (4) peptide pK (P434–I448), PAEDVSLMASIDSMI and (5) peptide pL (A443–K456), ASIDSMIDEIDFYEK.

Nevertheless, the primary use of ECT is handicapped by the severe

Nevertheless, the primary use of ECT is handicapped by the severe stigma, and even legal restrictions against its use in some jurisdictions.41 It is useful for practitioners who are responsible for the more acute and severely ill psychiatric patients to consider ECT as a primary indication and to be acquainted with all the means for proper consent for treatment within their jurisdiction.

ECT as second-line treatment Even if patients receive ECT only in rare cases immediately Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical after attaining criteria for pharmacotherapy resistance, those treatment failures are the most frequent ECT indication.50-53 The utilization of ECT enhances response rates significantly.54-56 This is especially true in patients suffering from psychotic depression, even if antipsychotic therapies have been adequately applied.40,57 Intolerable side effects of antidepressant medications, somatic comorbidities emerging Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical during the pharmacological treatment,40,58 or worsening of depressive symptoms, including Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical severe suicidality during antidepressant pharmacotherapy, can be also the cause of initiating an ECT treatment course.40 ECT as

“last-resort” treatment For rare last-resort, indications, no scientific evidence derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrating the efficacy of ECT can be found in the scientific literature. BMS-754807 concentration Nevertheless anecdotal case reports, case series, and retrospective reviews suggest the clinical effectiveness of ECT in obsessive-compulsive

disorder (OCD) after multiple treatment failures utilizing pharma.cotherapeut.ic and psychotherapeutic approaches. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Also, in a patient suffering from Tourettc’s syndrome, a rapid and sustained relief of symptoms has been reported.59 In the case of treatment-resistant epilepsy ECT can be utilized for rapid symptom relief in the case of present60 or absent61 concomitant depression. Not only depressive symptoms Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical but also impaired motor function in Parkinson’s disease show amelioration after a course of electroconvulsive treatment (for review see ref 62). Of Carnitine dehydrogenase course, particularly in such rare cases with last-resort indications, an individual benefit/risk estimation, including the complete evaluation of prior treatment, failures, has to be done for each patient. First- and second-line indications and rare last, resort indications are summarized in Table II. Table II. Indications for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). *, ref 45; **, with can not be handled even on protected wards, psychotic symptoms, depressive stupor, with positive symptoms or acute danger of seif-harm or harm of others, or with severe reduction in …

9 msec) and fires at higher amplitude compared

to 7 days

9 msec) and fires at higher amplitude compared

to 7 days. There is notable variability in ST2 firing patterns, as ST2 duration was on average +33.6 ± 46.13% longer at 21 days (Fig. 6). In low (BBB = 16), but not high performing animals, ST2 activation occurs with knee flexion instead of extension during yield (Fig. 5). To determine whether differences in ST2 duration were linear with recovery, burst durations were normalized (percent change postinjury) and correlated with open field BBB scores. A high correlation between ST2 burst duration and BBB scores (r2 = 0.9697; P < 0.05) indicates that smaller changes in burst duration occur in high-performing animals (Fig. 8). Figure 7 Average burst Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical duration relative to stance onset. Burst durations were measured relative to stance onset Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (“0”) and averaged before (solid) and 21 days (hatched) after injury. Average EMG onset and offset times are marked by the beginning ... Figure 8 ST2 burst duration predicts recovery in the open field. Normalized burst durations

were correlated with BBB scores ranging from 15 to 19. TA, LG, and ST1 display shortened burst durations relative to normal that do not correlate with open field performance … Changes in ST reflect task specificity To determine whether different forms of TM locomotion alter muscle recruitment after SCI, we compared flat or 10% downslope Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical grade TM walking in the same animals. Similar to 7 days and 21 days, flat TM walking at 13 days showed delayed activation of ST1 and shorter-burst durations relative to normal. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical During flat walking, a single prolonged burst with an indiscriminate reset period occurs in ST and ST2 is negligible (Fig. 9). TM walking at a downslope grade required a different recruitment pattern that was identified by changes in the ST. Downslope walking

produced later, and less activation of TA for ankle dorsiflexion and recruitment of LG was unchanged (data not Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shown). In the ST, downslope walking re-established a dual-burst pattern (Fig. 9). Notably, ST2 fired at a greater amplitude with a more defined onset/offset period during downslope walking than flat TM walking (Fig. 9). While downslope walking produced a reset period between ST1 and ST2 within the time period described for Naives, the muscle was not silent. Figure 9 Task-specific changes in locomotion alter Bay 11-7085 ST recruitment after mild SCI. EMG recordings are shown for the same animal as Naive, and 13 days after injury while walking on flat or 10% downhill TM surface grades. Stick figure diagrams at 60 Hz show a representative … Discussion Overview of the current study The current work identifies fundamental components of locomotor control that are impaired after recovery from SCI. Despite rapid improvements acutely after injury, deficits selleck chemical persist and normal locomotion does not return by chronic periods.

The strengths, weaknesses and predictive values of these three d

The strengths, weaknesses and predictive values of these three diagnostic modalities have been extensively studied [3-19], and their theoretical importances analyzed. Based on these studies, the ECG has been stated to be the most valuable test [4,5]. It is still unclear however,

just how these three diagnostic tools are used by ED physicians in their clinical reasoning, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and which of them is the most important when physicians decide the likelihood of ACS. This study aimed to analyze, in routine ED care, the relative contributions of the symptoms, ECG and TnT to the physician’s assessment of the patient’s overall likelihood of ACS. Methods Setting The Skåne University Hospital at Lund is a 900 bed institution which serves as the primary hospital for some 290,000 inhabitants and has a cardiac intensive care unit with 19 beds. Percutaneous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical coronary intervention and coronary

bypass surgery are available 24 hours a day. There is a traditional ED with approximately 65000 patients per year with physician interns, residents and specialists in internal and emergency medicine. During the study period, there were no standardized management protocols for patients with possible ACS, and no dedicated chest pain unit. Standard practice was however Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to admit patients at low risk to telemetry at the intermediate care ward, and to admit those at high risk to the cardiac intensive care unit. A prehospital ECG system was in operation with ambulance ECGs sent to a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cardiologist on call. If an ST elevation myocardial infarction was identified, the patient was transported directly to the angiography Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical laboratory, bypassing

the ED. Patient inclusion and exclusion All patients aged over 18 years presenting with non-traumatic chest pain as the chief complaint to the Lund ED at Skåne University Hospital between June 12th and October 8th 2009 were Pexidartinib nmr prospectively screened for the study, and patients were included if the physician’s assessment L-NAME HCl verified that the patient’s chief compliant was chest pain. Ongoing chest pain was not required for inclusion. Patients not following the physician’s recommendation of in-hospital care were excluded, as were patients unable to give a clear symptom history due to e.g. alcohol intoxication or dementia, and those transferred to other hospitals for in-patient care. Patient numbers and causes of exclusion are shown in Figure 1. All included patients underwent a routine clinical evaluation in the ED including symptom history, physical exam, ECG and TnT. Figure 1 Patient flow chart. All included patients gave informed consent, and the study was approved by the regional ethics committee in Lund (DNR2009/630).

Furthermore, we showed that omega-3 supplementation specifically

Furthermore, we showed that omega-3 supplementation specifically lowers vitreous levels of VEGF-A without influencing plasma levels of VEGF-A in patients with wet AMD who were receiving a bevacizumab pro re nata regimen. This is likely because AMD provokes a local rise in VEGF-A, and hence only vitreous, but not systemic, levels increase. The average time

from last injection in both groups being treated with bevacizumab was 8 weeks, without Bcl-2 inhibitor clinical trial any significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (Table). Although recent studies have demonstrated decreased systemic VEGF levels up to 4 weeks after intravitreal bevacizumab injection, our study did not show any significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (treated with bevacizumab) and group 3 (treatment naïve) at 8 weeks after their last anti-VEGF

injection.39 and 40 Therefore, our data suggest that omega-3 supplementation selectively lowers pathologic ocular VEGF-A in the retina, but not physiologic systemic VEGF-A. Long-term studies will be required to determine if the observed reduction in VEGF-A by omega-3- supplementation combined with anti-VEGF translates into lesser CNV progression or activity. All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and the following Doxorubicin mw were reported. Dr Rezende has received consultation fees from Novartis, Lachine, Quebec, Canada, Alcon Canada, Bausch & Lomb, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Allergan, Markham, Ontario, Canada, and Bayer, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, none of which are related to the current study. Przemyslaw Sapieha holds a Canada Research Chair and has received

consultation fees from Gerson Lehman Group not related to the current research. Supported by the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Montreal; Department of Ophthalmology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital; Farnesyltransferase Fond de Recherche en Ophtalmologie, University of Montreal; Foundation Fighting Blindness Canada; Grant 324573 from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Retina Foundation of Canada; Insight Instruments, Stuart, Modulators Florida, USA; Synergetics, Inc., O’Fallon, Missouri, USA; Novartis Canada, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Grants EY022275, EY017017, and P01 HD18655 from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; a Senior Investigator Award from Research to Prevent Blindness, New York, New York, USA; the Lowy Medical Foundation; and FP7 project 305485 of the European Commission (LEHS). The sponsors or funding organizations had no role in the design or conduct of this research. Involved in Design and conduct of study (F.A.R., P.S.); Collection of data (F.A.R., E.L., C.X.Q.); Management of data (F.A.R., E.L., P.S.); Analysis and interpretation of data (F.A.R., E.L., L.S., J.P.S., P.S.); Preparation of manuscript (F.A.R., E.L., P.S.); and Review and approval of manuscript (F.A.R., L.S., J.

In addition, it also identifies other factors that influence hope

In addition, it also identifies other factors that influence hope, all

of which had an impact on the effectiveness of the LWHP. Rural Paclitaxel order communities have an increasingly aging population and may be particularly vulnerable in P/EOL care [11]. Research on rural palliative care highlights how rural health services are fragmented, underfunded and lack specialists, and how caregivers are over-extended. Rural communities are also known for their resourcefulness and social cohesion, thus, there are strengths and challenges to rural P/EOL care provision [12,13]. This context emphasizes the vulnerability that these caregivers are experiencing amidst a critical time in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical their caregiving trajectory. Experience of caregiving The negative physical, mental, emotional, social

and economic consequences of providing care can be summarized into the term ‘caregiver burden.’ While Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical most family caregivers want to be able care for their family member, they continue to experience caregiver burden and carry responsibilities beyond what they can handle physically and emotionally; this in turn negatively impacts their health and overall quality of life [14-16]. Caregiver burden can be exacerbated by the multiple roles and responsibilities that family caregivers have, including spouse, parent, and employee [17]. The common negative health outcomes that family caregivers experience include Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical stress, anxiety, depression, sleep deprivation, fatigue, physical pain and other chronic health conditions [18-20]. Loneliness and fear can also be a part of the family caregiver’s experience, and the fear of the unknown is felt especially as the patient Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical nears the end of their life [21,22]. Hope is a psychosocial and spiritual resource that has been found to help Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical family caregivers in managing the challenges of caregiving. Caregiving and hope Understanding the meaning and significance of hope and its relationship to quality of life has been a significant focus of research across disciplines and methodologies,

specifically in literature related to health and illness. The meaning and processes of hope have been studied across a variety of health and illness experiences, including individuals living with a terminal illness [23,24], from caregivers of persons living with chronic illness [3], caregivers of persons living with dementia [25,26], bereaved caregivers [27] and individuals living with HIV/AIDS [28]. As a psychosocial and spiritual resource, hope has been found to help family caregivers live through difficult transitions and challenges of the caregiving experience, and influences their quality of life [29,30]. Hope is related to how individuals behave, feel and think; it has been defined as an inner strength, as possibility for the future, and as a multidimensional, dynamic life force, among other descriptions.

Those reviews demonstrating benefit should be widely adopted into

Those reviews demonstrating benefit should be widely adopted into practice and be actively implemented. Those concluding that a physiotherapy intervention is ineffective present challenges, but should be viewed as an opportunity to evolve practice in seeking effective alternatives, and to make more effective, and cost

effective, choices about which physiotherapy modalities to access for our patients. The Cochrane reviews concluding that there is insufficient research to reach a conclusion may disappoint those seeking evidence to inform treatment decisions, although such reviews can be valuable in prioritising important research questions and highlighting areas of practice where research investment is needed. Australian physiotherapists have contributed much to Cochrane, including learn more authorship of some highly relevant, high-quality reviews that have influenced policy and practice globally. Here we highlight some high-impact reviews, with a summary of their findings and a reflection of the contribution they have made to healthcare. This review of falls prevention in older people is one of Cochrane’s most highly accessed PD0332991 datasheet and most highly cited reviews.4 It was

led by Leslie Gillespie from New Zealand and included Cathie Sherrington from the George Institute as an author. It has been updated three times (most recently in 2012) and includes 159 trials and 79 193 participants. The review compares the effects of interventions to prevent falls versus a control group on the rate of falls, the number of fallers and the number of participants sustaining only fall-related fractures. The most common interventions tested were exercise as a single intervention (59 trials) and multifactorial programmes (40 trials). Multiple-component group exercise, usually including strength and balance exercises, significantly reduced rate of falls (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.82; 16 trials; 3622 participants) and risk of falling (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.96; 22 trials; 5333 participants), as did multiple-component home-based exercise (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.80; seven trials; 951 participants

and RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94; six trials; 714 participants). Overall, exercise interventions significantly reduced the risk of sustaining a fall-related fracture (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.63; six trials; 810 participants).4 In a recent editorial for The Cochrane Library, Leslie Gillespie, the lead author, reflects on the evolution of this important review and outlines its policy and practice implications. 5 In addition to the many international falls-prevention Libraries guidelines that it underpins, the review has directly informed the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care’s 2009 guidelines for the community, hospitals, and residential aged care facilities 6 and New South Wales Department of Health in Australia policy directive on the prevention of falls and harm from falls among older people.

This multinational study randomized 325 men over age 45 with IPSS

This multinational study randomized 325 men over age 45 with IPSS ≥ 13 to either tadalafil, 5 mg, daily or placebo for 12 weeks. This followed a 4-week wash-out period and 4-week placebo lead-in period. Compared with placebo, JNJ-26481585 supplier tadalafil significantly improved IPSS voiding and storage subscores (P = .02 and .002, respectively). The QoL index also improved (P = .013) but no difference was observed with the nocturia question (P = .233). IPSS questions for frequency (question 2) and urgency (question 3) improved significantly compared with placebo (P < .001 and P = .035, respectively). Tadalafil improved IIEF-EF domain at 12 weeks (least

squares treatment difference [95% CI, 2.5–6.9], Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical P < .001). Few treatment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported and the proportion of reporting at least one TEAE was similar between the placebo and treatment groups (tadalafil 26% vs placebo 22%). For tadalafil, most TEAEs were mild to

moderate in severity with the most common being headache (3.7%) and back pain (3.1%). Small increases in Qmax (tadalafil Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1.6 mL/s [4.6] vs placebo 1.1 mL/s [4.6]; P = .30) and in postvoid residual volume (PVR) (tadalafil 8.8 mL [56.4] vs placebo 4.5 mL [66.7]; P = .50) were observed in both treatment groups.27 Several other studies assessing tadalafil administered once daily in men with LUTS and ED have demonstrated significantly improved ED and BPH outcomes with sustained benefits and excellent tolerability.29,30 Based on these randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical approved tadalafil in October 2011 for the treatment of LUTS secondary to BPH, as well as for the treatment of concurrent LUTS and ED. Combination α-Blocker and PDE5-I α1-Adrenergic blockers (α-blockers) are considered the first-line monotherapy for LUTS secondary to BPH. Concerns regarding the coadministration of α-blockers and PDE5-I are related to potential drug-drug interactions leading to hemodynamic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical changes and significant lowering of

blood pressure. Kloner and others colleagues assessed the safety of combining tadalafil with two different α-blockers. In the first study, healthy volunteers took doxazosin, 8 mg, for 7 days, followed by coadministration of either tadalafil, 20 mg, or placebo for a single dose. Although there was a greater decrease in mean maximal systolic blood pressure in the doxazosin plus tadalafil group, symptoms of dizziness experienced by three patients did not correlate to measurable changes in blood pressure. The second study had healthy subjects take tamsulosin, 0.4 mg, for 7 days, followed by a single dose of tadalafil (10 or 20 mg) or placebo given 2 hours after the α-blocker. There were no statistically significant differences seen in standing systolic blood pressure between groups.

Lee12 calculated that

Lee12 calculated that infants born at 22–25 weeks and who are in the highest-risk category (male gender, no antenatal steroids, multiple birth, and lower weight percentile) #click here randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# have a mortality rate of over 80%, while for the lower-risk infants it is less than 20%. Given all the above data, what is one to do when confronted with an impending delivery at the limits of viability, i.e. 22–24 weeks? Whose data should serve as the reference point

for discussions with the parents? Whose Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical data are so biased by a self-fulfilling prophesy of poor survival that they reflect an arbitrary decision not to initiate intensive care in infants born earlier than a given gestational age? Whose data have not factored in weight, gender, or administration of antenatal steroids Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the decision-making process?4,13 In fact, careful perusal of the published reports does not allow one to conclude that we have

reached the biologic end of the line and that there is no more room for further improvement in the survival rate of these extremely immature infants, as in essence we have become prisoners of our own expectations. LONG-TERM MORBIDITY OUTCOME To many, the decision-making in this moral gray zone has been primarily influenced by the published Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical data as to the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of the surviving infants and not mortality rates. Reports on follow-up data from the NICHD Network14 from two treatment epochs (E1: 1999–2001 and E2: 2002–2004) have noted that there was no improvement in early childhood outcome between the two periods (mirroring Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the lack of improvement in survival rates). In both periods

there was comparable use of prenatal steroids (approximately 80%), and there was no significant difference in the percentage of multiple births or female infants. The rate of significant neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months in surviving infants born at 23 weeks or less was similar in both epochs, 23.6% in E1 and 26.5% in E2, and at 24 weeks it was 14.6% in E1 and 14.2% in E2. Most importantly, the percentage of the surviving infants born at 24 weeks or less who were unimpaired or only minimally impaired was no through different in both epochs and was only 22%. As such, these data highlighting such a poor outcome have served for many as the basis for the global recommendation of restrictive care for the infant born before 24 weeks of gestation, i.e. limiting care to non-treatment and comfort care only. Unfortunately, the fact that such recommendations are unrelated to the various factors that significantly modify survival rates speaks of poor ethical reasoning.