We investigated whether the R53H loss-of-function polymorphism of

We investigated whether the R53H loss-of-function polymorphism of the human tissue kallikrein gene affects renal potassium handling. In a crossover study, 30 R53R homozygous and 10 R53H heterozygous healthy males were randomly assigned to a low-sodium/high-potassium

or a high-sodium/low-potassium diet to modulate tissue kallikrein synthesis. On the seventh day of each diet, participants were studied before and during a 2-h infusion of furosemide to stimulate distal potassium NVP-AUY922 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor secretion. Urinary kallikrein activity was significantly lower in R53H than in R53R subjects on the low-sodium/high-potassium diet and was similarly reduced in both genotypes on high-sodium/low-potassium. Plasma potassium and renal potassium reabsorption were similar in both genotypes on an ad libitum sodium/potassium diet or after 7 days of a high-sodium/low-potassium diet. However, the median plasma potassium was significantly higher after 7 days of low-sodium/high-potassium diet in R53H than in R53R individuals. Urine potassium excretion and plasma aldosterone concentrations were similar. On the low-sodium/high-potassium diet, furosemide-induced decrease in plasma potassium was significantly larger in R53H than in R53R subjects. Thus, impaired tissue kallikrein

stimulation by a low-sodium/high-potassium diet in R53H subjects with partial tissue kallikrein deficiency highlights an inappropriate renal adaptation to potassium load, consistent with experimental data in mice.”
“Patterned films of poly(styrene-co-maleic selleck kinase inhibitor anhydride) copolymers were deposited by dip-coating from acetone solutions. A qualitative study of the film morphologies shows JIB-04 the formation of polymer spheres with smaller diameters at higher amounts of maleic anhydride (MA), and long-fibrous features at higher molecular weights. Upon heating, the films progressively re-assemble with short- and long-fibrous structures as a function of heating time and temperature. In parallel, the film morphologies are quantified by image processing and filtering

techniques. The differential scanning calorimetry confirms the higher glass transition temperatures with increasing amount of MA. The analysis with Raman spectroscopy shows interactions between the molecules in solution and effects of ring-opening (hydrolysis) and ring-closure (formation of MA) during drying of the films. The water contact angles on the patterned films are within the hydrophilic range. They mainly correlate with the amount of MA moieties calculated from spectroscopy, while the roughness parameters have a minor effect. The variations in film patterns illustrate the self-assemble ability of the copolymers and confirm a heterogeneous molecular structure, as previously assumed.”
“BackgroundPrediction of a woman’s risk of a spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD) is a core challenge and an unresolved problem in today’s obstetric practice. The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for spontaneous PTD ( smaller than 37 weeks).

Although alpha-synuclein is a typical cytoplasmic protein, a smal

Although alpha-synuclein is a typical cytoplasmic protein, a small amount of both monomeric and aggregated forms is secreted from cells and is present in human body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid. Extracellular alpha-synuclein aggregates have been shown to be neurotoxic, posing a challenge to any cell exposed to them. Here, we examine the internalization of various forms of extracellular alpha-synuclein, including fibrils, oligomers, and monomer, into neuronal cells and their subsequent degradation. Internalization of fibrillar alpha-synuclein could be inhibited by low temperature or the expression of a dominant-negative mutant dynamin-1 K44A, suggesting the endocytosis-mediated internalization.

The internalized fibrils moved through the endosomal pathway and were degraded in the lysosome, which ultimately resulted in the clearance of the alpha-synuclein aggregates from the culture medium. Non-fibrillar oligomeric aggregates were compound inhibitor also internalized via endocytosis and degraded by the lysosome. In contrast to aggregate uptake, BMS-754807 supplier the internalization of monomeric alpha-synuclein was unaffected by cold temperature and the expression of dynamin-1 K44A, consistent with direct translocation across the plasma membrane. Internalized monomers rapidly pass the plasma membrane, escaping the cells before being degraded by the cellular proteolytic

systems. These results suggest that only aggregated forms of extracellular alpha-synuclein can be cleared by cell-mediated uptake and degradation, and this might represent a mechanism of preventing neurons from exposure to potentially toxic alpha-synuclein. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A serologic investigation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in hybrid wild boar herds was conducted during 2008-2009. PRRSV isolates with novel genetic markers were recovered. Experimental infection of pigs indicated

that hybrid wild boars are involved in the epidemiology of PRRSV.”
“The incidence see more of de novo malignancies over a 38 year experience in 351 children ranging in age from 2 to 18 years was investigated among subjects prescribed various immunosuppressive protocols. There were 14 children (3.98%) who showed de novo malignancies, namely, 4.86 cancers for every 1000 graft-function years (GFYs). Among patients who had grafts functioning for >10 years, 7.4% suffered from cancer. Nine patients survive without a recurrence at a mean of 12.5 +/- 6.6 years including 6 with graft function. Among group I who were treated with pre-calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy 3 (3.8%) children (1 male and 2 females) developed a malignancy at a mean of 15.2 +/- 11.9 years posttransplant (range, 7-35), for 4.65 cancers every 1000 GFYs. Two of them survive with functioning grafts. Among group II, who were treated by CNIs there were 273 children including 24 retransplants. Group II showed 11 malignancies (4.0%), for 5.

Absolute symmetry error, along with the other objective assessmen

Absolute symmetry error, along with the other objective assessment tools, detected improvements in performance from pretest to posttest (P < 0.05). A battery of correlation analyses indicated that absolute symmetry error correlates moderately with the FPA and SES. The development of valid, reliable and feasible technical skill assessments is needed to ensure

all training centers evaluate trainee performance in a standardized fashion. Measures that do not require the use of experts or computers have potential for widespread use. We suggest that absolute symmetry error is a useful approximation of novices’ suturing and Dinaciclib in vivo knot tying performance. Future research should evaluate whether absolute symmetry error can enhance learning when used as a source of feedback during self-guided practice.”
“Tumor heterogeneity presents a challenge for inferring clonal evolution and driver gene identification. Here, we describe a method for analyzing Anlotinib supplier the cancer genome

at a single-cell nucleotide level. To perform our analyses, we first devised and validated a high-throughput whole-genome single-cell sequencing method using two lymphoblastoid cell line single cells. We then carried out whole-exome single-cell sequencing of 90 cells from a JAK2-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm patient. The sequencing data from 58 cells passed our quality control criteria, and these data indicated that this neoplasm represented a monoclonal evolution. We further identified essential thrombocythemia (ET)-related candidate

mutations such as SESN2 and NTRK1, which may be involved in neoplasm progression. This pilot study allowed the initial characterization of the disease-related genetic architecture at the single-cell nucleotide level. Further, we established a single-cell sequencing method that opens the way for detailed analyses of a variety AZD1480 in vitro of tumor types, including those with high genetic complex between patients.”
“Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy (AHE) has been reintroduced as an alternative treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. The aim of this study was to describe MRI changes after stereotactic AHE and to correlate the hippocampal and amygdalar volumes reduction with the clinical seizure outcome.\n\nEighteen patients after stereotactic AHE were included. Volumetry was calculated from preoperative MRI and from MRI obtained 1 year after the operation. The clinical outcome was examined 1 and 2 years after the treatment.\n\nHippocampal volume decreased by 54 +/- 19%, and amygdalar volume decreased by 49 +/- 18%. One year after the procedure, 13 (72%) patients were classified as Engel’s Class 1 (9 as Class IA), 4 (22%) patients as Class II and I (6%) patient as Class III.

The PCR results showed complete elimination of wolbachia from the

The PCR results showed complete elimination of wolbachia from the recovered female parasites. Interestingly, nano-CUR was also found to be a novel inhibitor

of filarial worm DNA topoisomerase II, Setaria Cervi in vitro. Conclusion: This study recognizes the beforehand antimicrofilarial, antimacrofilarial, antiwolbachial activity of nano-CUR (F3) over free forms and additionally its strong inhibitory action against www.selleckchem.com/products/DAPT-GSI-IX.html the major target filarial parasite enzyme DNA topoisomerase II in vitro.”
“Objective: To investigate the function of interleukin-33 (IL-33) in the asthmatic airway remodeling and the relationship between IL-33 and asthma severity. Methods: IL-33 levels, sputum eosinophils percentage (EOS%), pulmonary function and total immunoglobulin (IgE) were measured for 45 patients with asthma and 40 non-allergic

controls. Asthma severity was assessed. The expressions of IL-33 and reticular basement membrane (RBM) on bronchial biopsy specimens from eight asthma patients and eight non-allergic controls were observed after hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and immunohistochemical staining. In vitro experiments, real-time polymerase chain reactions and western blotting analysis were used to identify the specific effects learn more of IL-33 administration. Results: Serum IL-33 levels in patients with asthma were higher than those in non-allergic controls. Moreover, in asthmatic patients, serum IL-33 levels were negatively correlated Crenigacestat in vitro to forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, % predicted), and positively correlated to asthma severity. Increased expression of IL-33 and RBM thickening were observed on bronchial biopsy specimens obtained from patients with asthma. Serum IL-33 levels were positively correlated to basement membrane thickness. The production of fibronectin1 and type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) increased at 24 h after IL-33 treatment in vitro. Pre-treatment with anti-ST2 antibody or fluticasone propionate (FP) suppressed the production of fibronectin1

and types I collagen induced by IL-33. Conclusions: IL-33 is a marker of asthma severity, and may contribute to airway remodeling in asthma by acting on human lung fibroblasts.”
“Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with Merkel Cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare, aggressive skin cancer with neuroendocrine features. The causal role of MCPyV is highly suggested by monoclonal integration of its genome and expression of the viral large T (LT) antigen in MCC cells. We investigated and characterized MCPyV molecular features in MCC, respiratory, urine and blood samples from 33 patients by quantitative PCR, sequencing and detection of integrated viral DNA. We examined associations between either MCPyV viral load in primary MCC or MCPyV DNAemia and survival.

1 M NaCl The genes disrupted in these mutants due to insertion o

1 M NaCl. The genes disrupted in these mutants due to insertion of the transposon were identified by sequencing of Tn5 flanking sequences after inverse PCR. One of the mutants had a disruption in diguanylate cyclase gene which is involved in bacterial biofilm

formation and persistence. Selleckchem MK-2206 The second mutant had a disruption in an ABC transporter membrane protein gene, which is involved in the uptake of nutrients and cellular osmoprotection. The third mutant had a disruption in a gene showing homology with rhamnulose 1-phosphate aldolase which has an important role in the central metabolism of L-rhamnulose. The fourth mutant had a disruption in a capsule synthesis gene and the fifth mutant had an insertion in an oxidoreductase gene. When these mutants were inoculated into the host chickpea plant under normal non-saline conditions, they formed symbiotic nodules but with severely reduced nitrogenase activity.

Hence, it appears that bacterial ability to adapt to hyper-osmotic salt stress conditions is also important for its nitrogen fixing ability in the chickpea root nodules. Allele mining for variant forms of the identified genes in the germplasm resources of M. ciceri may help in the development of highly adaptive and efficient nitrogen fixing strains of the chickpea rhizobium.”
“Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a deadly disease characterized by chronic inflammation and excessive collagen accumulation in the lung. Myofibroblasts are the primary collagen-producing cells in pulmonary fibrosis.

Histone deacetylase www.selleckchem.com/products/4sc-202.html inhibitor (HDACi) can affect gene expression, and some, such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), are US FDA approved for cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated SAHA’s effects on the expression of collagen III alpha 1 (COL3A1) in primary human IPF fibroblasts and in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis. We observed that increased COL3A1 expression in IPF fibroblasts can be substantially reduced by SAHA treatment at the level of transcription as detected by RT-PCR; collagen III protein level was also reduced, as detected by Western blots and immunofluorescence. The deacetylation inhibitor effect c-Myc inhibitor of SAHA was verified by observing higher acetylation levels of both histone H3 and H4 in treated IPF cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments demonstrated that the reduced expression of COL3A1 by SAHA is with increased association of the repressive chromatin marker, H3K27Me3, and decreased association of the active chromatin marker, H3K9Ac. In our murine model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, the SAHA treated group demonstrated significantly less collagen III, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Our data indicate that the HDACi SAHA alters the chromatin associated with COL3A1, resulting in its decreased expression.”

In the present study, we examined the

expression of the E

In the present study, we examined the

expression of the EphB6 variant (EphB6v) in a panel of brain tumor cell lines and glioblastoma tissues and we found that EphB6v was preferentially expressed in malignant brain tumors, such as glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas. The EphB6v has a unique 54 amino acid sequence at the C-terminal that is not found in normal EphB6. Therefore, we attempted to identify antigenic peptides unique to EphB6v for immunotherapy. The two EphB6v-derived peptides exhibited the ability to bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A0201 molecules, and HSP990 order each of them was able to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HLA-A2(+) glioma patients. The cytotoxicity was mediated by peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells in an HLA-A2-restricted manner. The expression of EphB6v was also observed in different types of cancer (e.g. lung, colon, stomach, liver and pancreatic) cells. Taken together, the two peptides derived from EphB6v might be appropriate targets for peptide-based specific immunotherapy for HLA-A2(+) patients

with various cancers. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 1656-1662)”
“The osteoinductive growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), is capable of inducing de novo bone formation after implantation. A nanoparticulate selleck chemicals llc (NP) system was developed for BMP-2 delivery based on NPs fabricated from bovine serum albumin (BSA) and stabilized by polyethylenimine (PEI) coating. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and osteoinductivity of BMP-2 delivered with different BSA NP formulations were determined by subcutaneous

implantation in rats. A 7-day pharmacokinetics study showed that PEI coating on NPs effectively reduced the initial burst release of BMP-2 and prolonged the BMP-2 retention at implantation site. However, the uncoated BMP-2 NPs (BMP-2 loading of 1.44% w/w) were able to induce a robust ectopic bone formation, while no bone formation was found by the BMP-2 NPs coated with PEI. The toxicity of the PEI used for NP coating was determined to be the reason for lack of osteoinduction. Increasing BMP-2 loading (up to 5.76% w/w) was then employed to formulate NPs; with lower PEI content: the higher BMP-2 loading was found HDAC inhibitor to better promote induction of de novo bone. Our findings indicated that PEI coating on BSA NPs was effective for controlling BMP-2 release from NPs, but the toxicity of cationic PEI was a concern for the osteoinductive activity, which should be alleviated by further optimization of NP formulations. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites pose a threat to effective drug control, even to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Here we used linkage group selection and Solexa whole-genome resequencing to investigate the genetic basis of resistance to component drugs of ACTs.

Our findings of higher MCT1 and mitochondrial CK suggest that pro

Our findings of higher MCT1 and mitochondrial CK suggest that proteins related to extra-muscular fuel uptake and intra-muscular energy transduction are up-regulated without change in mitochondrial mass in MD patients. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Our purpose was to compare two post-processing techniques, Maximum-Intensity-Projection (MIP) and Volume Rendering (VR) for the study of perforator arteries.\n\nMethods: Thirty patients who underwent Multi-Detector-Row CT Angiography (MDCTA) between Mocetinostat February 2010 and May 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. For each patient and for each reconstruction method, the image quality was evaluated and the inter- and intra-observer

agreement was calculated according to the Cohen statistics. The Hounsfield Unit (HU) value in the common femoral artery was quantified and the correlation (Pearson Statistic) between image quality and HU value was explored.\n\nResults: The Pearson r between the right and left common femoral artery was excellent (r = 0.955). The highest image quality score was obtained using MIP

for both observers (total value 75, with a mean value 2.67 for observer 1 and total value of 79 and a mean value of 2.82 for observer 2). The highest agreement between the two observers was detected using the MIP protocol with a Cohen kappa value MEK inhibitor cancer of 0.856. The ROC area under the curve (Az) for the VR is 0.786 (0.086 SD; p value = 0.0009) whereas the ROC area under the curve (Az) for the MIP is 0.0928 (0.051 SD; p value = 0.0001).\n\nConclusion: MIP showed the optimal inter- and intra-observer agreement and the highest quality scores and therefore should be used as post-processing techniques in the analysis of perforating arteries. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus) is an anadromous fish species in China. Here, we reported 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from a dinucleotide-enriched genomic library of T. obscurus. The number of alleles, observed and expected

Autophagy inhibitor cell line heterozygosity per locus in 30 individuals ranged from four to 10, from 0.57 to 0.86 and from 0.68 to 0.90, respectively. Three loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction and no significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci was found. Cross-species amplification of these microsatellite loci in additional three fish species was performed. These polymorphic microsatellite loci would be useful for investigating genetic population structure and construction of genetic linkage map in T. obscurus.”
“Because of the prevalence of obesity, there is particular interest in finding potential therapeutic targest. In a previous study, we demostrated that 2,4,5-timethoxybenzaldehyde (2,4,5-TMBA), a bitter principle in plants and a natural cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) inhibitor, suppressed the differentiation of preadipocyts into adipocytes at the concentration of 0.5 mM.

Heat transfer in tissues is described by Pennes bioheat equation

Heat transfer in tissues is described by Pennes bioheat equation and blood perfusion rate is obtained from Darcy velocities. Capillary pressure, blood perfusion and temperature distribution of hand are obtained. The results reveal that fingertip temperature is strongly dependent on larger arterial pressure. This simulation is of potential to quantify the

indices used for evaluating the VR in DTM test if it is integrated with the haemodynamic model of blood circulation in upper limb.”
“Background: Data on deaths in the general wards of our hospital in 2007 revealed infrequent discussions on end-of-life care and excessive burdensome interventions. CCI-779 inhibitor Aim: A physician order form to withhold inappropriate life-sustaining interventions was initiated in 2009. The use of the form

was facilitated by staff educational sessions and a palliative care consult service. This study aims to evaluate the impact of these interventions in 2010. Design: Retrospective medical chart review with comparisons was made for the following: baseline patient characteristics, orders concerning life-sustaining therapies, treatment provided in last 24 h of life, and discussion of specific life-sustaining therapies with patients and families. Settings/participants: This study included all adult patients who died in our hospital’s general wards in 2007 (N = 683) versus 2010 (N = 714). Results: There was an increase in orders to withhold life-sustaining therapies, such as

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (66.2%-80.0%). There was a decrease in burdensome interventions such as antibiotics GSK2879552 (44.9%-24.9%) and a small increase in palliative treatments such as analgesia (29.1%-36.7%). There were more discussions on the role of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with conversant patients (4.6%-10.2%) and families (56.5%-79.8%) (p-value all smaller than 0.05). On multivariate analysis, the physician order form independently predicted orders to withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusions: A multifaceted intervention of a physician order form, educational sessions, and palliative care consult PF-6463922 cell line service led to an improvement in documentation of end-of-life discussions and was associated with an increase in such discussions and less burdensome treatments. There were small improvements in the proportion of palliative treatments administered.”
“Thermoplastic starch was prepared by adding oxidized starches and glycerol together into starch. The addition of oxidized starch improved the rheological properties and also increased the toughness of thermoplastic starch. Compared with TPS30, the elongation at break increased from 126.8% to 152.5% when 5 wt% OS 117% was added. Good compatibility of thermoplastic starch between the matrix and oxidized starch was confirmed by SEM.

To avoid bacterial adhesion to dental devices and to reduce cytot

To avoid bacterial adhesion to dental devices and to reduce cytotoxicity

against eukaryotic cells, we coated BisGMA/TEGDMA methacrylic thermosets with a new material, Chitlac-nAg, formed by stabilizing silver nanoparticles, which have well-known 3-MA price antimicrobial properties, with a polyelectrolyte solution containing Chitlac. Cytotoxicity, cell morphology, cell migration and inflammatory interleukine-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) secretion were evaluated. Our results showed that the cytotoxicity exerted on HGFs by our nanocomposite material was absent in our co-culture model, where fibroblasts are able to adhere and migrate. After 24 h thermosets coated with Chitlac as well

as those coated with Chitlac-nAg exerted a minimal cytotoxic effect on HGFs, while after 48 h LDH release rises up 20%. Moreover the presence of S. mitis reduced this release in a greater amount with Chitlac-nAg coated thermosets. The secretion of IL-6 was significant in both Chitlac and Chitlac-nAg coated thermosets, but PGE2 production was minimal, suggesting that the IL-6 production was not related to an inflammatory response. Co-culture and the addiction of saliva did Danusertib not influence IL-6 and PGE2 secretion. Data obtained in the present work suggest that Chitlac nAg coated thermosets could significantly improve the success rates of restorative

dentistry, since they limit bacterial adhesion and are not toxic to HGFs.”
“Purpose:To investigate the significance of vision-specific quality of life (QOL) in glaucoma patients based on the location of visual field defects.Patients and Methods:We examined 336 eyes of 168 patients. The 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire was used to evaluate patients’ QOL. Visual field testing was performed using the Humphrey Field Analyzer; the visual field was divided into 10 clusters. We defined the eye with better mean deviation as the better eye and the fellow eye as selleckchem the worse eye. A single linear regression analysis was applied to assess the significance of the relationship between QOL and the clustered visual field.Results:The strongest correlation was observed in the lower paracentral visual field in the better eye. The lower peripheral visual field in the better eye also showed a good correlation. Correlation coefficients in the better eye were generally higher than those in the worse eye. For driving, the upper temporal visual field in the better eye was the most strongly correlated (r=0.509). For role limitation and peripheral vision, the lower peripheral visual field in the better eye had the highest correlation coefficients at 0.459 and 0.425, respectively.

“Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for se

“Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia from an alternative donor is associated with higher risks of graft rejection and severe graft-versus-host disease. We developed a conditioning regimen consisting of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and low-dose total body Irradiation.

Two adult female patients with transfusion-dependent very severe aplastic anemia underwent 1-locus mismatched transplantation using this regimen. Both patients achieved stable engraftment and the clinical course thereafter was uneventful with persistently normal ovarian function. This novel conditioning regimen may be suitable for alternative donor transplantation for severe aplastic anemia, especially In young female patients. Am. J. Hematol. 84:167-169, 2009. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“We have investigated phenol replacements PD173074 clinical trial in a series of diaryl amino piperidine delta opioid agonists. From this study we have demonstrated that the hydroxy functional group can be replaced with a primary amide group, giving Prexasertib mw enhanced activity at the delta receptor, increased selectivity versus mu and kappa as well as improved in vitro metabolic

stability. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The essential metals, chromium (Cr), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn), are necessary for many metabolic processes and their homeostasis is crucial for life. The toxic metals, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), have no beneficial role in human metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of Cd, Cr, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn in scalp hair samples of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of

both genders, ages ranging from 30 to 50 y, and belong to urban areas of Ireland and Pakistan. For comparison purposes, age matched non-diabetic subjects of both countries were selected as referents.\n\nMethods: The concentrations of metals in scalp hair samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by conventional wet-acid-digestion method and using certified GW4869 mw reference materials.\n\nResults: The mean values of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of both Pakistani and Irish diabetic patients as compared to referents of both countries (P < 0.001). In contrast, lower Cr, Mg, Mn, and Zn (P < 0.01) concentrations were detected in scalp hair derived from patients with type 2 diabetes versus healthy subjects of both countries.\n\nConclusion: This study showed that, increased toxic elements and decreased essential elements are associated with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, these elements may play a role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The Wenquan molybdenum deposit is associated with a Triassic granite in this area.