The absorption tail can also be observed in the absorption spectr

The absorption tail can also be observed in the absorption spectrum of the ns-PLD CIGS thin film. Yet, the tail is much less significant for the ns-PLD CIGS film, presumably due to the fact that the individual radiative defect Luminespib chemical structure energy levels in ns-PLD CIGS film are more concentrated and less fluctuating. The discreteness of the PL emission peaks seen in the PL spectrum of the ns-PLD CIGS films evidently lends strong support to the above conjecture. At room temperature, the ns-PLD CIGS film shows a weaker PL intensity than that of the fs-PLD CIGS, which is due to the higher concentration of non-radiative recombination

centers induced by surface state between CIGS/Cu2 – x Se and CIGS/void interfaces. In addition, the stronger PL intensity of the fs-PLD CIGS can correspond to the existence of the (220)-oriented peak whose higher work function is beneficial for reducing the surface recombination. The results indicate that the fs-PLD CIGS film Combretastatin A4 is much more promising for device performance compared to the ns-PLD CIGS film. Figure 5 PL spectra (a) and fs pump-probe spectra (b) for ns-PLD (blue) and fs-PLD (red) CIGS thin films. The defects in the CIGS thin films can also affect the carrier dynamics, hence their device performance. To this respect, carrier dynamics in CIGS thin films obtained by different PLD processes were investigated by fs pump-probe spectroscopy, which is a technique ubiquitously adopted to delineate the

non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in semiconductors [18, 19]. Figure  5b shows the reflectivity transient in both films with a pumping power of 30.4 μJ/cm2 at room temperature. It is apparent from Figure  5b that the carrier lifetime is much longer in the fs-PLD CIGS film. The defect-related non-radiative recombination lifetime (τ n) can be derived from the results obtained by using different pumping fluences. selleck chemicals It showed that the τ n of ns- and fs-PLD CIGS films are 20 and 30 ps, respectively, revealing that the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism is more dominant in the ns-PLD CIGS

at room temperature because of the existence of CIGS/Cu2 – x Se and CIGS/void interfaces. On the other hand, the longer lifetime in the fs-PLD CIGS suggests less SRH recombination that is consistent with the existence of the (220) orientation. Finally, we examined the electrical selleck compound properties by van der Pauw four-probe measurements. The resistivity values of ns- and fs-PLD CIGS thin films were approximately 66.0 Ω cm and approximately 0.1 Ω cm, respectively. The higher resistivity of the ns-PLD CIGS thin films can be attributed to the higher concentration of non-radiative recombination center verified by PL and pump-probe measurements. The superior carrier transport properties exhibited in the fs-PLD CIGS film again could be attributed to the substantial improvements realized in suppressing the formation of Cu2 – x Se secondary phase and air voids by the fs-PLD process.

The CD81 LEL is the critical region for the interaction with the

The CD81 LEL is the critical region for the interaction with the E2 envelope glycoprotein and for virus entry. The

role of CD81 in the species restriction of HCV has been extensively studied [13–18], and it has been recently shown that in spite of the absence of in vitro interaction between murine CD81 (mCD81) LEL Vorinostat in vivo and a soluble form of HCV E2, the ectopic expression of mCD81 in HepG2 cells restored permissivity to HCVpp and, in a lesser extent, to HCVcc [15]. These results suggest that CD81 contributes to, but alone does not define, the species restriction and additional cellular factors are likely involved. Moreover, we have recently shown that EWI-2wint, a new partner of CD81, is able to modulate HCV entry in target cells suggesting that, in addition to the presence of specific entry factors in the hepatocytes, the absence of a specific inhibitor may contribute to the hepatotropism of HCV [19]. Members of the tetraspanin family organize and regroup their associated transmembrane proteins and are involved in various functions such as cell

morphology, motility, fusion and signalling [12, 20]. A major characteristic of tetraspanins is their ability to interact with each other and with other transmembrane proteins, thus building multi-molecular membrane complexes, collectively referred to as the tetraspanin CRT0066101 datasheet enriched microdomains (TEM) or tetraspanin webs [21, 22]. Membrane Z-DEVD-FMK manufacturer cholesterol contributes to the organization of these domains on the surface of live cells [23]. Cholesterol is also critical to many pathogens, including HCV [24] and Plasmodium

infection [23]. Interestingly, it has been shown that CD81 is required Oxymatrine for Plasmodium sporozoite entry and differentiation into hepatocytes [25, 26]. Using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that specifically recognizes a subset of mouse CD81 molecules associated with TEMs (MT81w), Silvie et al. have defined the role of TEM-associated CD81 in mice Plasmodium infection [23]. The similarities between Plasmodium and HCV liver infections indicate the importance of studying the role of TEM-associated CD81 in HCV infection. In our study, infection of Huh-7 target cells with highly infectious HCVcc particles allowed us to isolate a cellular clone resistant to HCV infection which has lost CD81 expression (Huh-7w7 cells). We then took advantage of the emergence of these CD81-deficient cells to analyze the functionality of mCD81 in HCV infection and to study the role of TEM-associated CD81 in HCV infection.

Mutations at codon 516 of the rpoB gene can confer either low or

Mutations at codon 516 of the rpoB gene can confer either low or high level resistance depending on the codon change [34]. It has been reported that substitution of aspartate by tyrosine in codon 516 induced RIF-resistance of M. tuberculosis with AZD2281 research buy minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 15 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml in BACTEC 460-TB system [34]. selleck compound In our study, RIF susceptibility was evaluated in Lowenstein

Jensen at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. This might explain why strains harbouring this mutation in our study were phenotypically RIF-susceptible. Among the 7 isolates which were altered genetically, 6 were MDR strains and one a RIF-SM-resistant isolate. Thus, rpoB could be an indicator AZD8931 of multidrug resistance among M. tuberculosis strains. This observation was previously reported among Cameroonian M. tuberculosis isolates [30]. It has been previously shown that about 10–15.9% of RIF -resistant isolates do not have mutations in the RRDR [15]. More than 90% of RIF -resistant strains from other regions had mutations located in the 81-bp core region [35–38]. This indicated a possible occurrence of alteration outside the core region of 81 bp of the examined rpoB. Among other explanations, several additional

genes might be involved in RIF-resistance such as rpoA, rpoC or rpoD[39]. The natural resistance to RIF in some M. avium and M. intracellular strains is known to be a result of efficient cell wall permeability and exclusion barrier, suggesting that these elements could also play an important role in M. tuberculosis[34]. However, in our study, all the isolates harboured mutations in the RRDR core region. Common genes known to be involved in INH-resistance are katG, inhA, ahpC, oxyR[10]. Several investigators have shown that INH-resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates arise principally from a katG gene alteration

[40–42] that corresponds essentially to point mutations in codon 315 (point mutations in two bases 944 and 945). In this study, 18 (40.0%) INH Gemcitabine -resistant isolates were genetically altered in the katG codon 315. Others studies have reported 95% of all INH-resistant isolates with mutations in codon 315 [43]. Out of the 6 MDR strains identified in this study, 5 displayed a high level resistance to isoniazid with a katG alteration and the remaining one displayed a low level INH-resistance with -32G → A mutation in oxyR-ahpC intergenic region. Therefore, it will be useful to combine katG315 and -15 point mutation inhA promoter region with rpoB in molecular assays looking at drug resistance. Since some of the INHR strains in this study had no mutation in katG315 and -15 inhA promoter region, it is likely that mutations in other genes, such as the inhA locus, contribute to resistance.

2008, P Karasch (WU

2008, P. Karasch (WU 29485). Ukraine, Carpatirossia, in silvis mixtis virgineis (Abies alba, Picea excelsa, Fagus sylvatica) in valle rivi Berlebas prope vicum Trebušany, alt. 800–1000 m, on bark of Abies alba, Aug. 1937, A. Pilát (syntype W 05672). Notes: Hypocrea subalpina is well characterised by discoid stromata with numerous minute ostiolar

dots occurring on bark of conifers, usually on a white amorphous crust or subiculum, showing a striking colour change from yellow when fresh to rust, orange-brown to brown when dry. A similar colour change is known from stromata of the unrelated H. bavarica. The subiculum, although superficially looking similar to the basidiomycete Exidiopsis calcea, apparently belongs to the Hypocrea. No clamps, basidia or basidiospores have been found in the subicular hyphae. Petrak (1940, p. 262) based his species on H. rufa var. discoidea recognising its uniqueness and giving a detailed description

of the teleomorph. Phylogenetically H. subalpina is located in a subclade of the section Longibrachiatum, albeit not well supported. The formerly unknown AZD8931 supplier Anamorph differs substantially from all known members of that section. It is unique in Trichoderma, differing from all other species by having synchronously branching/bifurcating polyphialides that are similar to those of the genus Polypaecilum G. Sm. The AZD2171 mw latter genus, however, differs in producing brownish, smooth to verruculose, globose conidia in chains; for descriptions see Smith (1961) and de Hoog et al. (2000). Notable are also the formation of large white crystals on CMD and the conspicuous swelling of conidia on CMD; a similar swelling has been detected in T. bavaricum. Hypocrea tremelloides (Schumach. : Fr.) Fr., Summa veg. Scand., Sect. Post., p. 383 (1849). Fig. 102 Fig. 102 Teleomorph

of Hypocrea tremelloides. a–f, n. Fresh stromata (a. immature; n. side view). g–m, o. Dry stromata (o. side view). p. Rehydrated stromata. q. Stroma surface in DOCK10 face view. r. Perithecium in section. s. Cortical and subcortical tissue in section. t. Subperithecial tissue in section. u. Basal palisade in section. v–y. Asci with ascospores (w–y. in cotton blue/lactic acid). a, d, p–u. WU 29507. b. WU 30193 (image by W. Gams). c. WU 30192. e, f, n, o. WU 29508. g. WU 29506. h. holotype. i, v, w. WU 29515. j. WU 29510. k. WU 29513. l. K 133302. m, x, y. WU 29509. Scale bars: a, e, f = 0.8 mm. b = 3 mm. c, d = 1.3 mm. g, i = 0.3 mm. j, p = 0.6 mm. k–n = 0.4 mm. o = 0.2 mm. q, s, w–y = 10 μm. r, t, u = 20 μm. v = 5 μm ≡ Sphaeria tremelloides Schumach., Enum. Plant., (Kobenhavn) 2: 173 (1803) : Fr., Syst. Mycol. 2: 335 (1823). Anamorph: Trichoderma tremelloides Jaklitsch, sp. nov. Fig. 103 Fig. 103 Cultures and anamorph of Hypocrea tremelloides. a, b. Cultures at 25°C (a. on CMD, 35 days; b. on PDA, 42 days). c. Conidiation tufts (SNA, 20 days). d–g, i–k. Conidiophores on/in growth plates (CMD, 7–15 days; e, g.

Other refers to genera each representing

Other refers to genera each representing Baf-A1 supplier <0.1% of all sequences. Sequences not aligning to prokaryotic or human genomes with a ≤ 2 bp mismatch were re-aligned to the human genome with decreased stringency (≤10 bp

mismatch), leaving 32,991,450 sequences for contig assembly (Table  1). Using Ray v1.7 [22], 56,712 contigs were assembled and submitted to the MG-RAST pipeline [21]. Post quality control, 53,785 sequences (94.8%), with a mean length of 160 ± 55 bp, were used for further analysis (Table  1). When the contigs were analyzed using a best hit approach through MG-RAST, they aligned predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65.1%) and Firmicutes (34.6%, Figure  2). The contigs aligned to 194 known genomes at the genus level, predominantly Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%), with the highest level of diversity at the genus level within the Proteobacteria phylum (125 different genera, Figure  2). These results are similar to the best hit analysis performed with the non-assembled sequences in that the majority of sequences

are from Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas, but differ in their proportion (Figure  1). Contigs VX-680 molecular weight Matching viral genomes were observed (< 0.04%), including phages derived from Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus (Figure  2). Contigs also aligned to the genomes of humans, gorillas, chimps and orangutans, SBE-��-CD likely due to the 60% identity criteria used (Figure  2). The observation of some of the genera, including Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Pantoea, was further validated through the presence of their rRNA ORFs (Additional file 3). Table 1 Contig assembly and open reading frame (ORF) prediction of Illumina reads (51 bp) from human milk Sequenced reads (51 bp)

261, 532, 204 Matching human 186,010,988 Matching prokaryotic 1,331,996 Used in contig assembly1 32,991,450 Contigs 56, 712 Post quality control 53,785 Average length (bp) 160 ± 55 Total length (bp) 8,630,997 Predicted ORFs 41, 352 Annotated 33,793 rRNAs 103 Functional category 30,128 Unrecognized medroxyprogesterone 7,559 1 all sequences not matching the human genome (≤10 bp mismatch). Figure 2 Best hit analysis of open reading frames within human milk. Assembled contigs (56,712) were submitted to MG-RAST for analysis. Contigs aligned to 194 known genomes at the genus level (maximum e-value of 1×10-5, minimum identity of 60%, and minimum alignment length of 45 bp). Color denotes phylum and red bars indicate the number of positive alignments. Open reading frames within human milk A total of 41,352 ORFs were predicted using MG-RAST, of which 82% were annotated (33,793 ORFs), and 18% were unrecognized (7,559 sequences, Table  1). A total of 30,128 ORFs corresponded to a functional category (Figure  3). For example, many ORFs encoded proteins for basic cellular function, including those for respiration (4.2%), cell signaling (4.8%), RNA (7.0%), DNA (2.6%), and amino acid metabolism (5.

% Ni-15 at % Si alloy supercapacitors with higher narrow cavity d

% Ni-15 at.% Si alloy supercapacitors with higher narrow cavity densities and higher

electric resistivities, with an aim to obtain further wide behaviors for Ti-Ni-Si ones, in comparison with those of the de-alloyed Si-Al alloy one [10, 11]. Experimental Materials The rotating wheel method under an He atmosphere was used for preparing Ti-15 at.% Ni-15 at.% Si alloy ribbons of 1 mm width and a thickness of about 50 μm, using a single-wheel melt-quenching apparatus (NEV-A05-R10S, Nisshin Gikken, Saitama, Japan) with rotating speed of 52.3 m/s. De-alloying GDC-0941 datasheet and anodic oxidation of the specimens were carried out for 288 ks in 1 N HCl solution and for 3.6 ks in 0.5 Mol H2SO4 solution at 50 V and 278 K, respectively. The densities of the specimen before and after surface treatment were 4.424 and 3.878 Mg/cm3, respectively. Characterization The phase transformations upon heating were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at a heating rate of 0.31 K/s using 10-mg specimens. The check details structure of specimens was identified by X-ray diffraction with Cu Kα radiation in the grazing incidence mode. Topography images were observed using a noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM, JSPM-5200, JEOL, Akishima, Tokyo, Japan). A scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPM) based on the measurement of electrostatic force gradient was applied to measure an absolute electrical

potential between the cantilever tip coated with Pt at 0 eV and TiO2 surface as the work function difference. Discharging measurement The specimen (1 mm wide, 50 μm thick, and 10 mm long) with double–oxidized surface was sandwiched directly by two copper ribbons beneath two pieces of glass plates using a clamp. Capacitances were calculated as a function of frequency

between 1 mHz and 1 MHz from AC electric charge/discharge pulse curves Decitabine in vitro of 10 V applied at 25 ns ~ 0.1 s intervals, using a mixed-signal oscilloscope (MSO 5104, Tektronix, Beaverton, OR, USA) and 30 MHz multifunction generator (WF1973, NF Co, Yokohama, Japan) on the basis of a simple exponential transient analysis. The charging/discharging behavior of the specimen was analyzed using galvanostatic charge/discharge on a potentiostat/galvanostat (SP-150, BioLogic Science Instruments, Claix, France) with DC’s of 10 V, 10 pA ~ 100 mA for ~900 s at room temperature. The details of the procedure have been described in previous paper [13]. Experimental inspection for electric storage was carried out by swing of reflected light of DC Galvanometer (G-3A, Yokogawa Electric, Tokyo, Japan) after charging at 1 mA for 20 s. Results and discussion Thermoanalysis and phase analysis of anodic oxidized alloys The DSC trace of the studied Ti-15 at% Ni-15 at% Si alloy ribbons shown in Figure 1a exhibits an increment in Cp at the glass this website transition temperature (Tg) of 555 K and one clear exothermal peak with peak temperature of 836 K.

According to the Alka-Plex™ product labels, as well as literature

According to the Alka-Plex™ product labels, as well as literature made available by the manufacturer, Alka-Plex™-based products contain a considerable amount of calcium carbonate, potassium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and potassium chloride. Since all of these compounds will freely disassociate in a water solution, there will be an unusually high concentration of the same minerals already present in AK’s glacier water (calcium, potassium, magnesium), as well as the alkaline half of this website these compounds (e.g., hydroxide

ion, or OH-, from potassium hydroxide). Though the exact amounts of these Alka-Plex™-based compounds within the Alka-PlexLiquid™ formula are not known, these compounds are likely the driving force behind the observations in the present study. It is possible, for example, that the continual presence of a dietary alkalizing agent absorbed directly into the blood could eventually

shift blood pH upward while having the greatest impact on BI 6727 clinical trial urinary pH for those consuming relatively acidic diets. In fact, urinary pH was influenced the most for those in the Experimental group with the highest PRAL values (Table 9). It is also possible that the influx of additional minerals find more absorbed into the blood from the AK water contributed to a greater retention of water within the cardiovascular system. This hypothesis could explain why urine output for the Experimental group increased during the post-treatment period following the shift from consuming AK water to the placebo water. Clearly, to understand the cause behind the observations from the present study, more work on tracking concentration changes of these key

minerals in both the blood and urine should occur. Study Implications The results from this study suggest that the regular consumption of mineral-rich bottled water with the Alka-PlexLiquid™ supplement can have measureable Rebamipide influences on markers for acid-base balance and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. Since most studies evaluating nutritional influences on acid-base status are either large-scale epidemiological studies [11], or studies where dietary or supplement intake is tightly controlled [10], the present study is relatively unique. The self-regulation of water consumption by subjects in the present study, however, also make it somewhat more difficult to definitively state how much AK water should be consumed to realize similar observations. Regardless, the present study results suggest that the influence of drinking AK water requires either an exposure period (i.e., ≥1 week) or a minimal volume of AK water consumption before the effects can be detected significantly in the blood and urine.

PCR-based methods targeting various genes are usually more rapid

PCR-based selleck methods targeting various genes are usually more rapid and sensitive than culture-based methods, and the high specifiCity and high sensitivity of molecular

beacons means they can be successfully combined with real-time PCR assays, and so provide a quick, accurate method for detection and analysis, making them ideal for routine diagnosis. Recent studies show that real-time PCR is gradually replacing gel electrophoresis [16–24] as it is suitable for large numbers of samples and involves automatic and fast analysis, as well as being able to execute multiplex protocols. Also, like in all probe-based assays, molecular beacons offer additional specifiCity. Recent studies have employed molecular beacons in PCR for the detection of Salmonella [25–27]. Here the detection of Salmonella selleck chemical and the discrimination between S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis serotypes is done by targeting 133–136 nt regions of three genes, while an artificial internal amplification control (IAC) is also incorporated. The target for Salmonella spp is invA, as it is highly conserved in almost all Salmonella serotypes [28, 29], and its specifiCity is apparent GDC-0994 from its continuous use in previous studies [18, 24, 28, 30–43]. The target for the specific detection of S. Enteritidis is prot6E, whose absence from

S. Enteritidis strains appears to be very rare [18], and the fliC gene has been chosen as a single target for the presence of S. Typhimurium. The method described here for the detection of Salmonella spp. from environmental and food specimens, not only reduces the time taken to identify the Salmonella strain, but is also precise enough to distinguish between its clinically significant serovars. Methods Bacterial samples The primary Salmonella samples used in this study (Table 1) were obtained from various animal, food and environmental

sources at the Cyprus Rucaparib Veterinary Services (Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Nicosia, Cyprus), which is the National Reference Laboratory of Salmonella for Cyprus. The commercially available bacterial strains listed in Table 2 were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manasas, USA), the National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC, Health Protection Agency, London, UK) and MERCK KGaA (Darmstadt, Germany). The reference S. enterica serovars listed in Table 3 were obtained from the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). Thirty-eight S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis samples as well as six different Salmonella serovars have been incorporated to ensure that the assay could correctly identify and differentiate between serotypes of S. enterica.

PCR products were subsequently electrophoresed on a 1 5% agarose

PCR products were subsequently electrophoresed on a 1.5% agarose gel, and visualized under a UV transilluminator. Western blot analysis Cells were lysed in buffer containing 20 mmol/L HEPES, 1 mmol/L EGTA, 50 mmol/L β-glycerophosphate, 2 mmol/L sodium orthovanadate, 100 mL/L glycerol, 10 mL/L

Triton X-100, 1 mmol/L DTT, and 1 × Protease Inhibitor Cocktail (Roche, Mannheim, Germany). The lysate was centrifuged at 13 000 g and 4°C for 10 min. The supernatant was the total cell lysate. Protein concentration was measured using the BCA protein assay kit (Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, IL, USA). Thirty micrograms of protein was loaded per lane, separated by 100 g/L SDS-PAGE, and transferred onto equilibrated polyvinylidene difluoride membrane by electroblotting. Membranes check details were blocked with 5% non-fat milk in 1% TBS-T buffer for 2 h at room temperature. AhR, CYP1A1, and GAPDH were detected for 2 h using antibodies against AhR (SC-5579, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA, working dilution 1:150), CYP1A1 (AB1258, Chemicon International, USA, working dilution 1:500), and GAPDH (2118, Cell Signaling Technology, USA, working dilution 1:1000). After secondary antibody incubation (7074,Cell Signaling Technology, USA, working dilution 1:2000) for 2 h, protein bands were detected using ECL system (Pierce Biotechnology, Inc., USA). Cell viability assay The selleck kinase inhibitor effect of DIM on the proliferation of gastric

cancer cells was determined by MTT assay. Briefly, A total of 1 × 104 trypsin-dispersed cells in 0.1 mL culture medium were seeded into each well of a 96-well plate and Akt inhibitor cultured for 24 hours. Next, cells were treated with DIM as described above. Then, 20 μL of MTT (5 g/L) was added to each well and the incubation was continued for 4 h at 37°C. Finally, the culture medium was removed and 150 μL of DMSO was added to each

well. The absorbance was determined with an ELISA reader at 490 nm. The cell viability percentage was calculated as: Viability percentage (%) = (Absorption value of experiment group)/(Absorption value of control group) × 100%. Flow cytometric analysis SGC7901 cells were plated on 60-mm diameter culture plates and treated with DIM at different concentration (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 μmol/L) for 48 h. The control contained 1 mL/L DMSO only. Prior to harvesting, the cells were washed twice with 0.01 mol/L PBS, trypsinized, and Progesterone pelleted. The cells were then fixed with 70% ice-cold ethanol at 4°C overnight. Finally, the cells were washed twice with PBS and dyed with PI. The DNA content was analyzed with a flow cytometer (Beckman-Coulter, Brea, USA). The cell cycle of SGC7901 cells were analyzed using MULTYCYCLE and winMDI2.9 software (Phoenix, AZ, USA). For cell apoptosis analysis, after incubation for 48 h, cells were stained with annexin V-FITC and PI. Cells with annexin V (−) and PI (−) were deemed viable cells. Cells with annexin V (+) and PI (−) were deemed early apoptotic cells.

The present case has demonstrated the importance of multi-modal t

The present case has demonstrated the importance of multi-modal therapy including the need for emergent surgical intervention and the availability of interventional radiology for control of the hemorrhage. Most importantly, a high index of suspicion must be maintained in similar cases so that the

Selleckchem GDC 941 highly lethal hemodynamic sequelae may be anticipated and managed with the appropriate pharmacologic agents to ensure optimal outcomes. Consent Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this Case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal. References 1. Sipple J: The association of pheochromocytoma with carcinoma of the thyroid gland. American Journal of Medicine 1961, 31:163–166.CrossRef 2. Schimke RN, Hartmann WH:

Familial amyloid-producing medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. A distinct genetic entity. Ann Intern Med 1965, 63:1027–1039.PubMed 3. Gardner E, Papi L, Easton DF, Cummings T, Jackson CE, Kaplan M, Love DR, Mole SE, Moore JK, Mulligan LM: Genetic linkage studies LY3023414 mw map the multiple find more endocrine neoplasia type 2 loci to a small interval on chromosome 10q11. 2. Hum Mol Genet 1993, 2:241–246.PubMedCrossRef 4. Mulligan LM, Kwok JB, Healey CS, Elsdon MJ, Eng C, Gardner E, Love DR, Mole SE, Moore JK, Papi L: Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Nature 1993, 363:458–460.PubMedCrossRef 5. Raue F, Frank-Raue K: Update multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Fam Cancer 2010. 6. Schuffenecker I, Ginet N, Goldgar D, Eng C, Chambe B, Boneu A, Houdent C, Pallo D, Schlumberger M, Thivolet C, Lenoir GM: Prevalence and parental origin of de novo RET mutations in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. Le Groupe d’Etude des Tumeurs a Calcitonine. Am J Hum Genet 1997, 60:233–237.PubMed 7. Bryant J, Farmer J, Kessler LJ, Townsend RR, Nathanson KL: Pheochromocytoma: the expanding

genetic differential diagnosis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003, 95:1196–1204.PubMedCrossRef 8. Modigliani E, Vasen HM, Raue K, Dralle H, Frilling A, Gheri RG, Brandi ML, Limbert E, Niederle Palmatine B, Forgas L: Pheochromocytoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: European study. The Euromen Study Group. J Intern Med 1995, 238:363–367.PubMedCrossRef 9. Frankel F: Ein Fall von doppelseitigem, völlig latent verlaufenen Nebennierentumor und gleichzeitiger Nephritis mit Veränderungen am Circulationsapparat und Retinitis. Arch Pathol Anat Physiol Klin Med 1886, 244–263. 10. Neumann HPH, Vortmeyer A, Schmidt D, Werner M, Erlic Z, Cascon A, Bausch B, Januszewicz A, Eng C: Evidence of MEN-2 in the original description of classic pheochromocytoma. N Engl J Med 2007, 357:1311–1315.PubMedCrossRef 11. Beard CM, Sheps SG, Kurland LT, Carney JA, Lie JT: Occurrence of pheochromocytoma in Rochester, Minnesota, 1950 through 1979. Mayo Clin Proc 1983, 58:802–804.PubMed 12.