Methods Forty-five patients (mean age: 64 4 year) with adult deg

Methods. Forty-five patients (mean age: 64.4 year) with adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis were reviewed retrospectively with a minimum 2 years. The mean number of levels fused was 6.1 +/- 1.6 segments. The upper instrumented vertebra ranged from T9 to L2. The lower instrumented vertebra was L5 and S1 in 24 and 21 patients, respectively.

Results.

Sagittal decompensation (SD) developed in 19 patients. The most significant risk factors of SD were preoperative sagittal imbalance and high pelvic incidence. The preoperative sagittal C7 plumb was more positive (67.9 mm) in the decompensation group than in the balance group (37.0 mm) CA4P cost (P = 0.002). There was a significant difference in pelvic incidence between 61.7 in the GSK J4 decompensation and 54.9 in the balance group (P = 0.01). The preoperative lumbar lordosis was hypolordotic in the decompensation group, however, it was not found to be a risk factor. Pseudarthrosis was identified at the lumbosacral junction in 5 patients, and 4 of them (80%) had SD. SD developed in 55% of patients who had loosening of the distal screws and 50% of patients with hypolordotic lumbar fusion. Distal adjacent

segment disease was more likely to cause SD than proximal adjacent segment disease.

Conclusion. Sagittal decompensation is common after long posterior instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. It is mostly associated with complications at the distal segments, including pseudarthrosis and implant failure at the lumbosacral selleckchem junction. Restoration of optimal lumbar lordosis and secure lumbosacral fixation is necessary especially in patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance and high pelvic incidence in order to prevent sagittal decompensation after surgery.”
“We report a case of adnexal torsion in a singleton pregnancy at 27 weeks of gestation. Adnexal torsion during pregnancy is a rare condition, and it is quite exceptional during the third trimester. The symptoms are non-specific and can be confused with other acute abdominal

disorders. In our case, ultrasound allowed an accurate preoperative diagnosis.”
“Study Design. Prospective comparative study on 100 patients with positive family history for idiopathic scoliosis.

Objective. To evaluate the concordance rate for curve pattern and side in family members with idiopathic scoliosis.

Summary of Background Data. The pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis has been the subject of extensive research. It is termed multifactorial with a genetic component. Similar curve shape has been reported in twins with idiopathic scoliosis.

Methods. We included prospectively 100 patients with idiopathic scoliosis when a relative of them was also affected with idiopathic scoliosis, and spine radiographs were available for both.

Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 1185-94 “
“The purpose of this stud

Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 1185-94.”
“The purpose of this study was to assess YouTube videos for their efficacy as a patient resource for infantile spasms. Videos were Smad inhibitor searched using the terms infantile spasm, spasm, epileptic spasm, and West syndrome. The top 25 videos under each term were selected according to set criteria. Technical quality, diagnosis of infantile spasms, and suitability as a teaching resource were assessed by 2 neurologists using the Medical Video Rating Scale. There were 5858 videos found. Of the

100 top videos, 46% did not meet selection criteria. Mean rating for technical quality was 4.0 of 5 for rater 1 and 3.9 of 5 for rater 2. Raters found 60% and 64% of videos to accurately portray infantile spasms, respectively, with significant agreement (Cohen kappa coefficient = 0.75, P < .001). Ten videos were considered excellent examples (grading of 5 of 5) by at least 1 rater. YouTube may be used as an excellent patient resource for infantile spasms if guided search practices are followed.”
“Introduction and objectives: Minimally invasive approaches in less-complex cardiac procedures can avoid unpleasant find more cosmetic results. Moreover, surgery can be scheduled in

younger patients. In previous papers, we compared submammary and midline sternotomy. We present our initial experience with an axillary, compared to submammary, approach to repair atrial septal defects under extracorporeal circulation.

Methods: 20 patients are included: 10 in the submammary PI3K inhibitor group (7 ostium secundum, 2 sinus venosus, 1 ostium primum) and 10 in the axillary group (7 ostium secundum, 3 sinus venosus). Mean age and weight are 6.4 +/- 3.62 years (range 3-13) and 23.5 +/- 8.74

Kg (range 12-38) in the submammary group, and 5.5 +/- 2.04 years (range 3-9) and 19.7 +/- 5.88 Kg (range 14-29) in the axillary one, respectively. Muscles are spared (pectoralis in submammary and latissimus in axillary). The whole procedure (cannulation and correction) is performed through a single incision, with no side ports.

Results: No residual defects were found at discharge. Surgical approach maneuvers are more cumbersome through the axillary than the submammary approach. In a peer comparison, extracorporeal circulation and cross-clamp time were similar in both groups (P > .05).

Conclusions: 1. Axillary approach is as safe as submammary access in selected patients and for defects approached through the atrium. 2. Cosmetic result is excellent. Full English text available from: www.revespcardiol.org (C) 2010 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The associations of serum omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with lipoprotein subclasses at the population level are uncertain.

Objective: We aimed to examine associations between major n-6 fatty acids [ie, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6)] and the lipoprotein subclasses VLDL, LDL, and HDL.


“The effects of Piper guineense seeds (Piperaceae) on conc


“The effects of Piper guineense seeds (Piperaceae) on conception of mice (Mus musculus) were investigated.

Thirty sexually mature mice (3 weeks old) were distributed in plastic cages with each cage containing two females and one male animal. Similar cages and same number of animals were set up as controls. Animals were fed a mixture of feed with extracts of P. guineense seed at various test concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kgBW). Controls were fed similar ration of normal diet without extract. The experiment lasted for 42 days, consisting of 21 days of feeding with extracts with males and females mice staying together in cages, and 21 days of feeding without extracts but male and female animals kept in separate cages to stop further sexual behavior.

All the female mice in Selleck AZD9291 MK-1775 inhibitor the control cages gave birth to young ones between the 28 and 35th day of the test periods but no animal in the test group showed signs of pregnancy and none had implantation of fetus in the womb. Histopathology sections of testis and ovary of test animals showed inflamed cells of the gonads compared to normal cells in the controls. Three alkaloidal amides (Piperanine, Delta alpha,beta-dihydrowasanine and isobutyl-(E,E)-2,4-decadienamide) were isolated by HPLC analysis of the extracts. On the bases of the results obtained, it was concluded that seeds of P. guineense contain substances that interferes with conception in mice.”
“Evaluation of: de Goede J, Verschuren WM, Boer JM, Kromhout D, Geleijnse JM. alpha-linolenic acid intake and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in 20,000 middle-aged men and women in The Netherlands. PLoS ONE 6(3), e17967 (2011). The polyunsaturated fatty acid of the n-3 series alpha-linolenic (ALA) is an essential fatty acid for humans, meaning that it cannot be synthesized and must be obtained from food sources. In addition, the inefficient synthesis of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic NVP-BSK805 (DHA), the more polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids found in seafood, from ALA makes both EPA and

DHA ‘semi-essential’. There is a growing body of scientific evidence from epidemiological studies and some clinical trials indicating that intake of marine n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA), either as fish oil concentrates or fatty (so-called blue) fish, has a cardioprotective effect. The association of dietary ALA, which is the vegetable n-3 fatty acid, with cardiovascular health has been less widely investigated than that of fish-derived n-3 fatty acids and is unclear. Thus, a new study relating ALA intake to cardiovascular outcomes in a sizable cohort is welcome. Such is the present report of 10-year findings in the MORGEN study, a large Dutch population-based cohort, part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Methods: Forty-two patients with GAD, 34 patients with PD, and 46

Methods: Forty-two patients with GAD, 34 patients with PD, and 46 healthy controls performed the emotional Stroop task with four word types, ie, GAD-related words, PD-related Rabusertib clinical trial words, neutral words, and positive words.

Results: Patients with GAD and those with PD were slower than healthy controls to respond to all stimuli. Patients with GAD had longer response latencies in color-naming both PD-relevant words and GAD relevant words. Patients with PD had longer response latencies only in color-naming PD-related

words, similar to healthy controls.

Conclusion: Patients with GAD and those with PD had a different pattern of attentional bias, and there was insufficient evidence to support the existence of specific attentional bias in patients with PD.”
“Background: The concept of ‘positive thinking’ emerged in cancer care in the 1990s. The usefulness of this approach in cancer care is under increasing scrutiny with existing research, definitions and approaches debated. Nurses may wish to judiciously examine the debate in context and consider its relevance in relation to their experience and clinical practice.

Purpose: To offer a constructivist perspective on ‘being positive’ we extract data from a constructivist grounded theory

study on humour in healthcare interactions in order to identify implications for practice and future MI-503 nmr research.

Methods: We offer three areas for consideration. First, we briefly review the emergence of ‘positive thinking’ within cancer care. Second, we present data from a grounded theory study on humour in healthcare interactions to highlight the prevalence of this discourse in cancer care and its contested domains. We conclude with implications

for practice and future research.

Findings: Patients actively seek meaningful and therapeutic WH-4-023 interactions with healthcare staff and ‘being positive’ may be part of that process. Being positive has multiple meanings at different time-points for different people at different stages of their cancer journey. Patients may become ensnared by positivity through its uncritical acceptance and enactment.

Conclusion: Positive thinking does not exist in isolation but as part of a complex, dynamic, multi-faceted patient persona enacted to varying degrees in situated healthcare interactions. Nurses need to be aware of the potential multiplicity of meanings in interactions and be able (and willing) to respond appropriately. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from little studied habitats are able to synthesize both previously known and new physiologically active compounds with diverse structures. They include secondary metabolites of alkaloid nature, i.e., ergot alkaloids, diketopiperazines, quinolines, quinazolines, benzodiazepines, and polyketides.

Objective To determine the viability and safety of Reverse Smith

Objective. To determine the viability and safety of Reverse Smith Petersen Osteotomy (RSPO) to re-established sagittal balance in patients with fixed lumbar hyperlordosis.

Summary and Background Data. Lumbar hyperlordosis is seen as a compensatory mechanism in thoracic Scheuermann disease and in sagittal decompensation in severe neuromuscular scoliosis. Hyperlordosis may also be seen after overcorrection with spinal osteotomies, but rarely causes clinically significant negative sagittal imbalance because of the thoracic compensation.

We describe a case using www.selleckchem.com/products/lazertinib-yh25448-gns-1480.html a kyphosing osteotomy to treat hyperlordosis in a patient that was treated with a pedicle subtraction osteotomy for post-Harrington kyphosis.

Methods. The radiographs and clinical chart were reviewed of a patient treated with a RSPO at L2-L3 to correct the negative sagittal imbalance created by a previous extension of her fusion to the sacrum with a pedicle subtraction osteotomy.

Results. A reduction in the lumbar lordosis by 20 at L2-L3 and restoration

of the global sagittal balance was achieved with the RSPO.

Conclusion. RSPO is a viable surgical technique that can be used to re-establish sagittal balance in patients with fixed lumbar hyperlordosis. Appreciation of a patient’s balanced sagittal alignment and available compensatory mechanisms can help ensure SRT2104 chemical structure appropriate osteotomies are performed.”
“P>Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a frequent indication for lung transplantation (LTX) with pulmonary hypertension (PH) negatively affecting outcome. The optimal procedure type remains a debated topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pretransplant PH in IPF patients. Single LTX (SLTX, n = 46) was the standard procedure type. Double LTX (DLTX, n = 30) was only performed in cases of relevant PH or additional suppurative lung disease. There was no significant

difference for pretransplant clinical parameters. Preoperative mean pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly higher in DLTX recipients (22.7 +/- 0.8 mmHg vs. 35.9 +/- 1.8 mmHg, P < 0.001). After transplantation, 6-min-walk PRT062607 distance and BEST-FEV(1) were significantly higher for DLTX patients (6-MWD: 410 +/- 25 m vs. 498 +/- 23 m, P = 0.02; BEST-FEV(1): 71.2 +/- 3.0 (% pred) vs. 86.2 +/- 4.2 (% pred), P = 0.004). Double LTX recipients demonstrated a significantly better 1-year-, overall- and Bronchiolitis obliterans Syndrome (BOS)-free survival (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis confirmed SLTX to be a significant predictor for death and BOS. Single LTX offers acceptable survival rates for IPF patients. Double LTX provides a significant benefit in selected recipients. Our data warrant further trials of SLTX versus DLTX stratifying for potential confounders including PH.”
“The aim of the study is to examine the associations of sleep characteristics with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sleep health disparities among US young adults using national survey data.

Pritz Their structures were

Pritz. Their structures were Selleck Flavopiridol identified by spectral methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR and HR-EI-MS.”
“The aim of the study was to evaluate patients with multisegmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCM) surgically

treated via a dorsal approach. Two different laminoplasty techniques were compared by assessment of enlargement of the spinal canal and the neurological outcome.

Thirteen patients (mean age 49 years, 11 males) underwent decompressive laminoplasty over a 7-year period. The average duration of symptoms was 21 months. The pre- and postoperative degree of myelopathy was assessed by both the Nurick grading and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association myelopathy score (JOA score). Preoperatively, the mean Nurick grade was 3.1 and the mean JOA score was 11. Two different techniques of expansive laminoplasty were used. Six patients underwent a bilateral cutting (BL) technique with retropositioning of the laminae and

bilateral mini-plating (BL group). Seven patients were operated on by simple open-door (OD) laminoplasty with unilateral mini-plating (OD group). Postoperatively, CT scans were obtained for all patients to measure the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal. The mean clinical and radiological follow-up was 33 months.

Four to five laminae were involved selleck in all patients.The mean operation time was 180 min. Complications occurred in two patients of BL group, with GSK2126458 price immediate postoperative neurological deterioration due to ventral displacement of the laminae. Overall, the average

sagittal diameter (SD) of the spinal canal increased from 9.2 +/- 1.3 mm to 12.4 +/- 1.3 mm after surgery. The average enlargement of SD was significantly higher for the OD group (p < 0.0075 ). In total, the improvement rate was 38% according to the Nurick grading and 69% according to the JOA score. For the OD group, improvement rates were 57% (Nurick) and 71% (JOA).

Decompressive laminoplasty is comparable with anterior surgery in neurological outcome. The OD technique seems to be superior to our BL technique regarding both the enlargement of SD and complication rate.”
“In this work, photoelectron spectroscopy is used to characterize the band alignment of lanthanum aluminate heterostructures which possess a wide range of potential applications. It is found that our experimental slope parameter agrees with theory using the metal-induced gap states model while the interface induced gap states (IFIGS) model yields unsatisfactory results. We show that this discrepancy can be attributed to the correlation between the dielectric work function and the electronegativity in the IFIGS model.

Refractive status, visual acuity, and binocular vision were asses

Refractive status, visual acuity, and binocular vision were assessed and recorded 2 months and 1 year postoperatively.

RESULTS: The mean spherical equivalent (SE) in all 72 hyperopic eyes (47 patients) was +3.42 diopters (D) (range 0.00 to + 12.50 D) preoperatively and + 0.59 D (range -1.25 to +2.00 D) 1 year postoperatively. After LASIK, 41.7% of eyes had improved corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). No patient had

reduced CDVA or loss of fusional ability; there was a 25.0% improvement in stereopsis at 1 year. The mean anisometropic difference in the hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia subgroup (18 eyes, 10 patients) was 4.39 D (range +1.75 to +7.75 D) preoperatively and +0.51 D buy Vadimezan (range 0 to +0.875 D) at 1 year. One year postoperatively, 83% of anisometropic eyes were within +/- 1.00 D of the fellow eye and 94.0% were within +/- 3.00 D. Postoperatively, 64.7% of eyes had improved CDVA with no reduced CDVA or loss of fusional ability; there was a 22% improvement in stereopsis at 1 year.

CONCLUSION: Laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy MK-2206 supplier improved visual acuity in pediatric hyperopia with or without associated hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia.”
“The use of polymeric reagents simplifies the routine acylation of amines because it eliminates traditional purification. In this article, the use of readily available crosslinked poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported benzoyl chloride

as an acylating agent of amines in the presence of K(2)CO(3) in n-hexane is described. The product was readily obtained by the filtration and evaporation of the

solvent. The spent polymeric reagent could be regenerated and reused. Selleckchem GW 572016 (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 2345-2349, 2011″
“A section of the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curve has been measured in the millisecond regime to describe the A1 to L1(0) transformation of 10 nm FePt thin films. Short time annealing was accomplished using a pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The temperature-time profile of the films was measured using an optical pyrometer and a platinum thin film resistor and it was numerically modeled. Effective thermal pulse widths were determined from the time dependence of the atomic diffusion coefficient calculated from the measured temperature profile. The measured TTT diagram involving average order parameter is consistent with theoretical predictions of TTT diagrams involving ordered volume fraction and shows that partial ordering can be obtained with a single effective thermal pulse as short as 1.1 ms. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3506689]“
“PURPOSE: To evaluate blood-flow responses before and after microkeratome application.

SETTING: School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Methods A total of 330 essential hypertensives, categorized acco

Methods. A total of 330 essential hypertensives, categorized according to tertiles of left atrial (LA) diameter indexed to body surface area were considered for the analysis. All subjects underwent a quantitative

echocardiographic examination as well as extensive clinical and laboratory investigations. RVH was defined as anterior right ventricular (RV) wall thickness >= 6.0/5.5 mm in men and women, respectively, and LVH as LV mass index >= 51/47 g/m(2.7) in men and women, respectively. Results. The prevalence of LVH Selleck Ro-3306 increased across LA diameter tertiles from 21.0% to 50% and that of RVH from 26.3% to 41.8% (p < 0.01 for both). This was also the case for biventricular hypertrophy (from 10.0% to 26.0%, p < 0.01). Differences in both LV and RV structure across LA diameter tertiles remained significant after adjusting for age, office systolic/diastolic blood pressure and duration of hypertension. Similar results were obtained when study population was divided according to absolute LA diameter tertiles. Conclusions. Our findings provide further evidence of an interaction between left and right chambers in systemic hypertension by showing that LAE is associated with RVH. The clinical and prognostic implications signaling pathway of such observation remain be evaluated in future prospective

studies.”
“Background: Neovascularization is necessary for follicular growth. Vascularization is first observed

in preantral follicles, and thereafter the vasculature markedly increases in follicles undergoing development. Neovascularization includes angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Vasculogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels by bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells. It is unclear whether vasculogenesis occurs during follicular growth. Blood vessels must be mature to be functional blood vessels. Mature blood vessels are characterized by the recruitment of pericytes. However, it is unclear where pericytes come from and whether they contribute to neovascularization in the follicle during follicular growth. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived progenitor p38 MAPK activity cells that differentiate into vascular endothelial cells or pericytes contribute to neovascularization during follicular growth.

Methods: A parabiosis model was used in this study. Six-week-old wild-type and transgenic female mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were conjoined between the lateral abdominal regions to create a shared circulatory system. After 6 weeks, the ovaries were obtained and immunostained for CD31/CD34 (a vascular endothelial cell marker), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta) (a pericyte marker), and GFP (a bone marrow-derived cell marker).

Methods: To assess access to primary care, we compare variation a

Methods: To assess access to primary care, we compare variation among residence-based, age-adjusted hospital discharge rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ASC). To assess access on one dimension of specialty care, we compare residence-based, age-adjusted hospital discharge rates for revascularization bypass

surgery and angioplasty among patients diagnosed with ischemic heart disease (IHD). In addition, for each region we rely on a multilevel generalized linear mixed effect AZD6738 model to identify a range of individual and area-level factors that affect the discharge rates for ASC and revascularization.

Results: In comparison with other large metropolitan regions, in France, access to primary care is greater in Paris and its surrounding region (IDF) than in NPC but worse than in PACA. With regard to revascularization, after controlling for the burden of IHD, use of services is highest in PACA followed by IDF and NPC. In all three regions, disparities in access are much greater for revascularization than for ASC. Residents of low-income areas and those who are treated in public hospitals have poorer access to primary care and revascularizations. In addition, the odds of hospitalization for ASC and revascularization are

higher for men. Finally, people who are treated in public hospitals, have poorer access to primary care and revascularization services than those who are admitted for ASC and revascularization services in private hospitals.

Conclusions: Within each region, GSK1210151A cost we find significant income disparities

among geographic areas in access to primary care as well as revascularization. Even within a national health insurance system that minimizes the financial barriers to health care and has one of the highest rates of spending on health care in Europe, the challenge of minimizing these disparities remains. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The effect of doxorubicin on find more the expression of cofilin and actin in CHO AA8 cells was estimated by fluorescence and electron microscopy. The presence of cofilin and actin was observed particularly in the nuclei of cells by different modes after treatment by doxorubicin. Cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe expressed some entirely characteristic features together with overlapping elements of other types of cell death. Additionally, the authors suggest that, as defined here, reorganization of F-actin might be involved in all cell death processes. Changes in the nuclear expression of cofilin are related to F-actin cytoplasm-nuclear translocation and its intranuclear dynamic reorganization.”
“Background. An increase in total peripheral resistance (TPR) usually increases arterial wave reflection.

4%

Conclusions: This study provides evidence to suppo

4%.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence to support the current clinical practice toward use of a 4-week neonatal ARV prophylaxis regimen.”
“Purpose of review

This review examines the literature on the ability of an epidural test dose to detect intravascular or intrathecal epidural catheter misplacement in the obstetric patient.

Recent findings

There is no consensus on the exact nature of the epidural selleck chemical test dose in obstetrics, as no single regimen has been proven to be completely effective as an epidural test dose. The administration of a test dose is especially important in patients who may require the administration

of a large dose of local anesthetic such as for an emergency cesarean section. However, the accidental administration of an intended epidural therapeutic dose during labor analgesia, in either the intravascular or the intrathecal space, is not completely safe.

Summary

Gentle aspiration followed by an appropriate test dose, in epidural anesthesia for cesarean section, and careful observation of the patients in epidural labor analgesia increase the likelihood that an incorrectly placed catheter will be detected and that a harmful reaction to local anesthetics will be avoided.”
“Silver polyhedron coated electrospun nylon 6 nanofibrous membranes were produced using a nonhazardous and green electroless process. The process employed sodium citrate as

a complexing and reducing agent at 80 degrees Liproxstatin-1 cell line C, without the need of any surfactant or hazardous chemicals. Selleckchem Galardin The novel nanofibrous membrane, produced under optimum conditions, demonstrated high infrared (IR) extinction and ultraviolet (UV) blocking and good water vapor permeability. It is expected to have wide potential application for thermal radiation shielding, UV blocking and IR camouflage. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011″
“The work presented in this paper is concerned with the fundamental study of a damage detection principle in a reverberant medium, based on ambient acoustic noise correlation. The aim here is to theoretically investigate the sensitivity of the correlation of received signals

to a local defect. The acoustic reverberation in the medium is modeled by a random process and an empirical description of the defect behavior is deduced from its experimental characterization. A global parameter r, corresponding to the energy ratio between the change in the correlation function caused by the defect and the defect-free correlation, is defined and theoretically derived. It is shown to essentially depend on the reverberation properties of the medium and the relative positions of the noise source, the sensor(s) and the defect. The theoretical expression of r is experimentally validated in a particular 2D-case (metallic plate) and then used to define the detection range and the optimal placements of the sensors. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.