Results: All patients tolerated the procedure

Results: All patients tolerated the procedure LY2835219 cost well. Administration of TNG was significantly more frequent in the IV ketamine group. Pain intensity during the surgery was similar in both groups. Both groups were comparable with regard to heart rate, but patients in the SC ketamine group had a significantly lower systolic BP at the 2nd measurement and a lower

rate-pressure product at the 2nd, 4th, and 5th measurements. All patients in the SC ketamine group were cooperative during surgery and experienced uneventful recoveries; mild hallucinations were observed in 5 patients in the IV ketamine group. In the IV ketamine group, 3 patients lost the ability to cooperate during surgery. All catheters were successfully placed.

Conclusions: Dissociative conscious sedation is an acceptable alternative to general anesthesia in laparoscopic implantation of the PD catheter. Ketamine by the SC route is as effective as, but safer than, IV ketamine.”
“Association between insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported. This prompted us to evaluate the power of the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in association with IGFBP-1 to identify IR early in obese children/adolescents. OGTT was performed in 34 obese/overweight children/adolescents. Glucose, insulin and IGFBP-1 were measured in serum samples and ISI

was calculated. Considering the presence of three or more risk factors for IR as a criterion for IR, ISI <4.6 showed 87.5% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity in diagnosing IR. IGFBP-1 was lower in the group with ISI <4.6 (p <0.01). In this GSK2126458 group, three patients had higher than expected IGFBP-1, suggesting hepatic IR, while three patients with ISI >4.6 showed very low IGFBP-1 levels. Conclusion: ISI <4.6 is a good indicator of early peripheral IR and, associated with IGFBP-1, can identify increased risk of hepatic IR. Low IGFBP-1 levels among non-IR children may indicate increased portal insulin levels.”
“To

investigate the efficacy of the current fertility preservation consultation process in patients’ decision-making and socio-demographic and cognitive factors that may affect patients’ decision-making, a prospective pilot survey was conducted at university-based IVF centres and included women aged 18-43 years seen for fertility preservation between April 2009 SB203580 datasheet and December 2010. Patients’ views on consultation and decision-making about fertility preservation were measured. Among 52 women who completed the survey, more than half (52%) requested their consultation. All patients answered that consultation was a helpful resource of information, and 73% made their decision about treatment after consultation. Decisional conflict was lower in patients who felt strongly that they were given opportunities to ask questions during the consultation (P = 0.001) and higher those who reported that cost was strongly influential in the treatment decision (P < 0.

Some of the challenges associated with designing these systems in

Some of the challenges associated with designing these systems include technical issues 17-AAG research buy associated with the complexity of air pollution and its science. These include inability to provide precise exposure concentrations or guidance on long-term/cumulative exposures or effects from pollutant combinations. Other issues relate to the degree to which people are aware and positively respond to these services. Looking to the future, mobile devices such as cellular phones, equipped with sensing

applications have potential to provide dynamic, temporally and spatially precise exposure measures for the mass population. The ultimate aim should be to empower people to modify behaviourfor example, when to increase medication, the route/mode of transport taken to school or work or the appropriate time to pursue outdoor activitiesin a way that protects their health as well as the quality of the air they breathe.”
“Spontaneous retropharyngeal haematoma and dissecting intramural haematoma of the oesophagus are two Compound C cell line distinct, but rare, phenomena. We describe the first case of complete tracheo-oesophageal obstruction due to spontaneous retropharyngeal

haematoma presenting with chest pain and dysphagia. Rapid imaging allowed life-saving transfer to the regional specialist centre, with immediate surgical intervention. The importance, aetiology and clinical features of both diagnoses are discussed.”
“The pharmacodynamic properties of fluvoxamine maleate include the modulation of different populations of serotonergic, dopaminergic, and sigma receptors and/or transporters, a complex pattern of activity that may account for its selleck products efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, its pharmacokinetic profile and its pattern of side effects may hinder a rapid dose escalation, a therapeutic strategy that might be utterly desirable in patients with OCD.

In preclinical studies, the maximum plasma concentration and bioavailability of an extended-release (CR) formulation of fluvoxamine were, respectively, 38% and 16% lower than those of the standard (ie, non-CR) formulation. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the fluvoxamine CR formulation for the treatment of OCD in adults. This approval was based on the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 253 OCD patients in which fluvoxamine CR showed a consistently earlier onset of therapeutic effects than other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, as reported in previous studies. The use of the CR formulation of fluvoxamine allowed a particularly aggressive dosing strategy at the beginning of the titration phase, ie, treatment could be started with a single dose of fluvoxamine CR 100 mg at bedtime, while keeping the occurrence of side effects and the rate of compliance at levels comparable to those reported for the use of immediate-release fluvoxamine.

Furthermore, elevated SLP-2 expression is an independent prognost

Furthermore, elevated SLP-2 expression is an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model (p = 0.005).

Overexpression of SLP-2 may contribute to the progression and poor prognosis of GC.”
“Coherent plane wave compounding is a promising technique for achieving very high frame rate imaging without compromising image quality

or penetration. However, this approach relies on the hypothesis that the imaged object is not moving during the compounded scan sequence, which is not the case in cardiovascular AZD8931 in vitro imaging. This work investigates the effect of tissue motion on retrospective transmit focusing in coherent compounded plane wave imaging (PWI). Two compound scan sequences were studied based on a linear and alternating sequence of tilted plane waves, with different timing characteristics. Simulation studies revealed potentially severe degradations in the retrospective focusing process, where both radial and lateral resolution was reduced, lateral shifts of the imaged medium were introduced, and losses in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were inferred. For myocardial imaging, physiological tissue displacements were on the order of half a wavelength, leading to SNR losses up to 35 dB, and reductions of this website contrast by 40 dB. No significant difference was observed between the

different tilt sequences. A motion compensation technique based on cross-correlation was introduced, which significantly recovered the losses in SNR and contrast for physiological tissue velocities. Worst case losses in SNR and contrast were recovered by 35 dB and 27-35 dB, respectively. The effects of motion were demonstrated in vivo when imaging a rat heart. Using PWI, very high frame rates up to 463 fps were achieved at high image quality, but a motion correction scheme was then required.”
“The predictive value of pre-ovulatory hormones for achievement

of pregnancy has selleck chemicals been extensively evaluated in assisted reproductive technologies. Currently, no high-quality evidence exists to support or deny an association between oestradiol levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration and pregnancy achievement in IVF cycles. Retrospective studies appear to support the lack of such an association. Progesterone elevation oil the day of HCG administration does not appear to be associated with the probability of clinical pregnancy in women undergoing IVF. Finally. no retrospective studies exist to suggest that low endogenous midfollicular LH concentrations are associated with a significantly decreased probability of ongoing pregnancy beyond 12 weeks of gestation in IVF. In two prospective studies. high endogenous LH concentrations during down-regulation were associated with a decreased probability of ongoing pregnancy beyond 12 weeks of gestation.

To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoel

To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric

measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3503505]“
“The aim of this study was to compare the number of temporary catheter replacements and urinary tract infections after indwelling catheterization for 2 versus 5 days following an anterior colporrhaphy.

Two hundred forty-six patients were randomly assigned to 2 or 5 days of indwelling Galardin mouse catheterization. Outcome measures were temporary catheter replacements because of post-voiding residual > 200 mL after removal of the indwelling catheter, urinary tract infections, and hospital stay. All patients were analyzed according to the intention to treat principle.

Compared to the 5-day protocol group, in the 2-day protocol group more patients needed temporary catheter replacement (9% versus 28%, odds ratio (OR) 4.0, confidence interval (CI) 1.9-8.3, p < 0.01), whereas less patients had

a urinary tract infection (37% versus 22%, OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9, p = buy Cilengitide 0.02) and median hospital stay was lower.

Removal of an indwelling catheter after 2 versus 5 days following anterior colporrhaphy is associated with more temporary catheter replacements, but less urinary tract infections and a shorter hospital stay.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical

analgesic efficacy of 1.0 g oral acetaminophen (paracetamol) given in addition to topical anesthesia before phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient ophthalmology clinics, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

METHODS: Consecutive patients NSC 697286 with age-related cataract having phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia (tetracaine 0.5%) were enrolled in a prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to preoperative oral administration of a placebo medication or to oral administration of 1.0 g acetaminophen. The main outcome measure was intensity of pain during and after surgery. Pain intensity was measured using a 10 cm baseline visual analog scale and a discrete 5-category verbal rating scale.

RESULTS: The study comprised 160 consecutive patients (80 in each group). lntraoperatively, the mean visual analog scale pain intensity score was 2.17 +/- 1.81 in the placebo group and 1.45 +/- 1.17 in the acetaminophen group and the mean verbal rating scale score, 1.11 +/- 0.73 and 0.67 +/- 0.66, respectively (P<.01). Postoperatively, the mean visual analog scale score for pain was 1.47 +/- 1.39 in the placebo group and 0.56 +/- 0.61 in the acetaminophen group and the mean verbal rating scale score, 0.94 +/- 0.79 and 0.

X-ray, ac, and dc magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance exper

X-ray, ac, and dc magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance experiments were carried out on powder and dispersed NiO systems.

Our results show that dispersed and concentrated samples exhibit following two different magnetic behaviors: (i) a high temperature peak related to the blocking of the https://www.selleckchem.com/products/CAL-101.html particle core and (ii) a low temperature maximum likely related to the freezing of the frustrated spins on surface particle. Besides, we have observed that the low temperature maximum is not field-dependent and depend strongly on the distance among particles. This result can be understood taking account the decreasing of the dipolar interaction to more dispersed samples. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3459890]“
“Background:

Evidence of an association between fish and meat consumption and risk of dementia is inconsistent and nonexistent in populations in developing countries.

Objective: The objective was to investigate associations between fish and meat consumption with dementia in low-and middle-income countries.

Design: One-phase cross-sectional surveys were conducted in all residents aged >= 65 y in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, the BLZ945 purchase Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru. A total of 14,960 residents were assessed by using the 10/66 standardized protocol, which includes face-to-face interviews for dietary habits and a cross-culturally validated dementia diagnosis.

Results: Dietary intakes and the prevalence of dementia varied between sites. We combined site-specific Poisson regression prevalence ratios PRs) for the association between fish and meat

consumption and dementia in 2 fixed-effect model meta-analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics and fish and meat consumption as appropriate. We found a dose-dependent inverse association between check details fish consumption and dementia PR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.91) that was consistent across all sites except India and a less-consistent, dose-dependent, direct association between meat consumption and prevalence of dementia PR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.31).

Conclusions: Our results extend findings on the associations of fish and meat consumption with dementia risk to populations in low-and middle-income countries and are consistent with mechanistic data on the neuroprotective actions of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish. The inverse association between fish and prevalent dementia is unlikely to result from poorer dietary habits among demented individuals reverse causality) because meat consumption was higher in those with a diagnosis of dementia. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:392-400.”
“Background: It is widely accepted that local anesthetics with epinephrine should not be used in areas served by terminal vessels.

Statistical analyses were performed by using Student t and Pearso

Statistical analyses were performed by using Student t and Pearson chi(2) tests.

Results: Multidetector CT venography depicted thrombosis of 98 dural sinuses or jugular bulbs in 57 (40.7%) of the 140 patients with skull fractures extending to a dural sinus or jugular bulb. Fifty-four (55%) of the 98 sinuses or bulbs had occlusive thrombosis. DVST was seen in only those patients with skull fractures extending to a dural sinus or jugular bulb. Among the skull fractures extending to the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, or jugular bulb, those of the petrous temporal bone had a higher risk (50%, 36 of 72 fractures) of traumatic DVST than did those of the occipital Selleck GW-572016 bone (34% risk [ 32 of 93 fractures]) (P

= .044). However, among the skull fractures extending to the superior sagittal sinus, those of the occipital bone had a higher risk (67% [ eight of 12 fractures]) of traumatic DVST than did those of the parietal (39% risk [ 11 of 28 fractures]) and frontal (24% risk [ four of 17 fractures]) bones (P = .065). Four (7%) patients with traumatic DVST had associated hemorrhagic venous infarctions, all secondary to occlusive DVST.

Conclusion: In patients with blunt head trauma, multidetector CT venographic evaluation

should be performed only if there is a fracture extending to a dural venous sinus or jugular bulb. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“A micromagnetic numerical study of the precessional motion of the vortex and antivortex states in soft ferromagnetic circular nanodots is presented using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert dynamics. For sufficiently Selleckchem KPT-8602 small dot thickness and diameter, the vortex state is metastable and spirals

toward the center of the dot when its initial displacement is smaller than a critical value. Otherwise, the vortex spirals away from the center and eventually exits the dot which remains in a state of in-plane magnetization (ground state). In contrast, the antivortex is always unstable and performs damped precession resulting in annihilation at the dot circumference. The vortex and antivortex frequencies of precession are compared with the response expected on the basis of Thiele’s theory of collective coordinates. LBH589 mouse We also calculate the vortex restoring force with an explicit account of the magnetostatic and exchange interaction on the basis of the “”rigid”" vortex and “”two-vortices side charges free”" models and show that neither model explains the vortex translation mode eigenfrequency for nanodots of sufficiently small size. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3534006]“
“Aim:

With cancer cases expected to rise in the coming decades, increased demands will be placed on our health system to address the psychosocial care of patients affected by cancer. The objective of this study was to review the evidence on the cost effectiveness of psychological interventions for individuals with cancer.

No interaction between childhood body mass index (in kg/m(2); mea

No interaction between childhood body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean: 14.0) selleck chemicals llc and maternal calcium supplementation was observed in this study.

Conclusion: Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy in Gambian women with very low habitual calcium intakes may not result in lower offspring blood pressure at 5-10 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:741-7.”
“Roux-en-Y

loop is considered the reconstruction method of choice in Orthotopic Liver Transplantation (OLT) for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC). We have adopted an approach of duct-to-duct (D-D) reconstruction when recipient common bile duct is free of gross disease. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who underwent a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy and patients who had a D-D anastomosis. Morbidity, mortality, disease recurrence and graft and patient survival were compared between the two groups and analyzed. Ninety-one patients had OLT for PSC. Sixty-three patients underwent a D-D biliary reconstruction, whereas 28 patients had a Roux-en-Y loop. Biliary leak complicated 8% from the D-D group, and 14% from the Roux-en-Y group (P = 0.08), whereas biliary strictures were identified in 10% vs. 7% patients from the D-D and Roux-en-Y group, respectively (P = 0.9). Actuarial 1, 3 and 10 year survival for D-D and Roux-en-Y group was (87%, 80% and 62%) and (82%, 73% and 73%), respectively (P = 0.7). The corresponding 1, 3 and 10 year graft survival was (72%, 58% and 42%)

and (67%, 58% and 53%), respectively (P = 0.6). No difference was seen in disease recurrence rates. D-D biliary reconstruction in OLT for selected PSC patients remains our first option

of GSK2126458 in vivo reconstruction.”
“Background: Insulin sensitivity (Si) is improved by weight loss and exercise, but the effects of the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or carbohydrates of high glycemic index (HGI) or low glycemic index (LGI) are uncertain.

Objective: We conducted a dietary intervention trial to study these effects in participants at risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

Design: We conducted a 5-center, parallel design, randomized controlled trial [RISCK (Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Cambridge, and Kings)]. The primary selleck and secondary outcomes were changes in Si (measured by using an intravenous glucose tolerance test) and cardiovascular risk factors. Measurements were made after 4 wk of a high-SFA and HGI (HS/HGI) diet and after a 24-wk intervention with HS/HGI (reference), high-MUFA and HGI (HM/HGI), HM and LGI (HM/LGI), low-fat and HGI (LF/HGI), and LF and LGI (LF/LGI) diets.

Results: We analyzed data for 548 of 720 participants who were randomly assigned to treatment. The median Si was 2.7 x 10(-4) mL . mu U(-1) . min(-1) (interquartile range: 2.0, 4.2 x 10(-4) mL . mu U(-1) . min(-1)), and unadjusted mean percentage changes (95% CIs) after 24 wk treatment (P = 0.13) were as follows: for the HS/HGI group, -4% (-12.

We analysed whether MSI (MicroSatellite Instability) and/or CIN (

We analysed whether MSI (MicroSatellite Instability) and/or CIN (Chromosome INstability = LOH (loss of heterozygosity) and/or DNA-aneuploidy

(abnormal nuclear DNA contents)) could be used as predictors of familial CRC.

Formalin-fixed tissue from 97 patients with CRC (29 patients with 2 or more affected first-degree relatives (= “”cases”"), 29 matched CRC controls without a family history, and 39 relatives to cases) were analysed for MSI and CIN.

In this small case-control study, no significant differences in the frequencies of MSI and CIN were observed between cases with a family history and their controls without a family history. MSI+;CIN- was observed in 6/29 cases and in 0/29 controls (p = 0.02), most frequently in cases with affected 3-deazaneplanocin A price siblings, only (3/7). However, for 13 patients from whom several CRC tumours were analysed, concordant results for MSI/LOH/DNA-ploidy were obtained only in 10/9/9. Among cases and relative(s), concordant

results for MSI, LOH and DNA-ploidy were obtained in 16/26, 16/26, and 14/25 families, respectively.

Although MSI+;CIN-appeared to predict familial CRC with a high specificity, neither MSI, CIN, or MSI+;CIN- are likely to be sufficiently sensitive predictors of familial CRC.”
“Background: One of the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) family GSK1838705A of proteins, human MOF (hMOF, MYST1), is involved in histone H4 acetylation, particularly at lysine 16 (H4K16Ac), an epigenetic mark of active

genes. Dysregulation of the epigenetic mark influences cellular biology and possibly leads to oncogenesis. We examined the involvement of hMOF and H4K16Ac in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using fresh-frozen lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell lines and immunohistochemistry for hMOF and H4K16Ac via tissue microarray of 551 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded NSCLC tissue blocks were conducted. Results: hMOF mRNA was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer tissues, compared with normal lung tissues (10/20, 50%). NSCLC tissues were positive for hMOF in 37.6% (184/489) and H4K16Ac in 24.7% (122/493) of cases. hMOF protein expression was tightly correlated with the H4K16Ac level in tumors (p<0.001). P505-15 ic50 Knockdown of hMOF mRNA with siRNA led to a significant inhibition of growth in the Calu-6 cell line. Conclusions: hMOF was frequently expressed in NSCLC and was correlated with H4K16Ac. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has focused on the expression status of HATs and hMOF in NSCLC. Our results clearly suggest a potential oncogenic role of the gene and support its utility as a potential therapeutic target.”
“Objective: The goal of this study was to define the long-term outcome of absence epilepsy presenting before the age of 3 years.

The objective of this study was to optimize and characterize the

The objective of this study was to optimize and characterize the novel PTX micelle (PTX-M). ACY-738 in vivo Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics, NIR-imaging, biodistribution, and anti-tumor effects of PTX-M were evaluated. The results showed that the PTX-M had high drug loading (43.25%). The

V(d) and t(1/2 beta) of PTX-M were increased by 11.4- and 2.83-fold, respectively, but the plasma AUC of PTX-M was 3.8-fold lower than that of Taxol. Biodistribution study indicated that PTX-M was widely distributed into most tissues, most of them found in liver, spleen, lung, and kidney. This result was similar with NIR(near-infrared)-imaging. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of PTX-M. PTX-M showed the enhanced anti-tumor effect and non-toxic effects compared with Taxol, the commercial product of PTX. Therefore, the chitosan-derived micelle system offered a stable and effective platform for cancer chemotherapy with PTX.”
“The development of what became known as the biological species concept began with a paper by Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1935, and was amplified by a mutualistic interaction between Dobzhansky, Alfred Emerson and Ernst Mayr after the second world war. By the 1950s and early 1960s, these authors had developed an influential concept of species as coadapted genetic complexes

at equilibrium. At this time many features of species were seen as group advantages maintained

by selection to avoid breakdown of beneficial Selleck MCC 950 coadaptation and the ‘gene pool’. Speciation thus seemed difficult. It seemed to require, more so than today, an external deus ex machina, such as allopatry or the founder effect, GSK923295 rather than ordinary within-species processes of natural selection, sexual selection, drift and gene flow.

In the mid-1960s, the distinctions between group and individual selection were clarified. Dobzhansky and Mayr both understood the implications, but their views on species changed little. These group selectionist ideas now seem peculiar, and are becoming distinctly less popular today. Few vestiges of group selectionism and species-level adaptationism remain in recent reviews of speciation. One wonders how many of our own cherished views on evolution will seem as odd to future biologists.”
“Two, three dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), a portion of the metal chelating domain of enterobactin, was immobilized on crosslinked organic polymer polyallylamine (PAAm) and used as a chelating agent for iron removal from aqueous solutions. The swelling behavior of PAAm and PAAm hydrogels conjugated with dihydroxybenzoic acid and the effect of contact time on the swelling and binding capacity of the hydrogel was investigated at several pH values to define the absorption mechanism.

Our overall decannulation rate of 92% compares favorably to that

Our overall decannulation rate of 92% compares favorably to that reported in the literature (84-96%). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart type fatty acid binding selleckchem protein (HFABP) has been found to be predictive for myocardial ischemia. Wet ested whether HFABP is the predictor for CVD in PCOS patients, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Methods: This was a prospective, cross sectional controlled study conducted in a training and research hospital. The study population

consisted of 46 reproductive-age PCOS women and 28 control subjects. We evaluated anthropometric and metabolic parameters, carotid intima media thickness and HFABP levels in both PCOS patients and control group.

Results: Mean fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR),

triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, free testosterone, total testosterone, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients. Although HFABP levels were higher in PCOS patients, the difference did not reach Z-DEVD-FMK purchase statistically significant in early age groups. After adjustment for age and body mass index, HFABP level was positive learn more correlated with hsCRP, free testosterone levels, CIMT and HOMA-IR.

Conclusions: Heart type free fatty acid binding protein appeared to have an important role in metabolic response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant, hyperandrogenemic PCOS patients.”
“Since the diode laser is a good compromise for the daily use in dental offices,

finding usage in numerous dental indications (e.g., surgery, periodontics, and endodontics), the minimization of the collateral damage in laser surgery is important to improve the therapeutical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water/air cooling on the collateral thermal soft tissue damage of 980-nm diode laser incisions. A total of 36 mechanically executed laser cuts in pork liver were made with a 980-nm diode laser in micropulsed mode with three different settings of water/air cooling and examined by histological assessment to determine the area and size of carbonization, necrosis, and reversible tissue damage as well as incision depth and width. In our study, clearly the incision depth increased significantly under water/air cooling (270.9 versus 502.3 mu m-test group 3) without significant changes of incision width. In test group 2, the total area of damage was significantly smaller than in the control group (in this group, the incision depth increases by 65 %).