Figure 5 Schematic of the nanochannel scratching with V stage and

Figure 5 Schematic of the nanochannel scratching with V stage and V tip in the opposite direction when V stage   >  V tip . Schematic of the machining state after ( a ) one and ( b ) two AFM scanning cycle. ( c ) Schematic of the cross section of TSA HDAC mouse the machined nanochannel. To demonstrate the capability of the AFM-based fabrication method presented

in this study, five channels with different machining parameters corresponding to the conditions mentioned above were created on the GNS-1480 nmr aluminum alloy sample. The scan size (L tip), scan rate of the AFM (f), and the number of line-scanning within one scanning process (s) are set to 10 μm, 4 Hz, PKC412 and 300, respectively, for all scratching tests. Thus, the feed velocity of the AFM tip V tip is calculated to be 133.3 nm/s using Equation 1. The machining results are described and analyzed in detail in Section ‘Results and discussion’. Results and discussion Figure 6 shows the AFM and SEM images of the nanochannels scratched with the stage motion and the feed rate in the same direction. As shown in Figure 6a, the nanochannel machined with the stage velocity V stage of 50 nm/s and the normal load of 36.06 μN has two-ladder structure, which agrees well with the condition shown in Figure 2c discussed in the part (1) of Section 3.1 (V stage < 0.5V tip). However, the fluctuation

of the channel bottom is very large. Due to V tip larger than V stage, the displacement of the tip relative to the sample in one scanning process is in the positive direction of x axis shown in Figure 2a. As shown Avelestat (AZD9668) in Figure 7a which is the SEM image of the AFM diamond tip, the edge and the face of the tip can be observed clearly. Figure 7b shows the front view of the nanochannel fabrication process, and Figure 7c shows the A-A cross section indicated in Figure 7b, which represents the condition with the displacement of the tip

relative to the sample in one scanning process in the positive direction of x axis. Δ′ and x′ axis, shown in Figure 7c, are defined as the projections of the feed of the tip (Δ) and x axis in the A-A cross section. In addition, α is the attack angle between the tip and the sample surface which can be used to determine the removal mechanisms of the materials. Thus, considering the geometry of the AFM tip shown in Figure 7c, the edge of the AFM tip plays a main role in the scratching test. For increasing α, three removal mechanisms have been proposed: plowing, wedge formation, and cutting [21]. For AFM diamond-tip-based nanomachining, if the attack angle is larger than a certain value (75° in [22]), cutting is the dominant mechanism. Using Equation 11, the real pitch in scratching is calculated to be 10 nm.

It was found that four CDSs encode putative transposase, acetyltr

It was found that four CDSs encode putative transposase, acetyltransferase, phage integrase, and phosphoglycolate phosphatase, 17 encode hypothetical proteins with chromosomal homologs among B. cereus group strains and four had no hit. The linear alignment showed that the main matches were located in chromosome positions 2.15 M ~ 2.34 M for AH187, and 2.05 M ~ 2.28 M Sotrastaurin research buy for KBAB4 (Figure  2B). Thus, it is most likely that the ces gene cluster in CER057 has a chromosomal location. The hybridization bands of MC118 and MC67 are larger than that of pCER270, although

the corresponding plasmid bands are rather weak (Figure  2A). This strongly suggests that the cereulide genetic determinants of both MC118 and MC67 (named pMC118 and pMC67) are located on plasmids larger than pCER270, which were PCR-negative to pXO1 Ruxolitinib clinical trial backbone genes. Unfortunately, the contigs containing the ces gene clusters in MC67 and MC118 were very

short, ca. 56.7 and 26.6 kb, respectively. Besides the seven ces genes, 30 putative CDSs were predicted in the larger contig of MC67, of which 9 had no hit, and the other 21 had homologs in the plasmids or chromosomes of other B. cereus group strains, including putative transposases, spore germination learn more proteins, thiol-activated cytolysin, dehydratase and hypothetical proteins. However, although the gapped genome of MC67 was tentatively aligned with all the published plasmid sequences of the B. cereus group using the MAUVE contig aligner, no obvious colinear match was observed to large fragment (data not shown). Identification of putative mobile genetic elements (MGEs) flanking the cereulide genetic determinants About 5 kb DNA sequences upstream of cesH and downstream of cesD from the “”ces”" contigs were

used for detailed analysis. Liothyronine Sodium In the case of MC67 and MC118, because the available flanking sequences were shorter they were obtained by primer walking. Three types of flanking sequences could be observed (Figure  3). A potential group II intron, carrying an ncRNA and reverse endonuclease gene, is located 2.4 kb downstream of cesD in the plasmid of both AH187 and IS075, while an integrase/recombinase gene is located 1.1 kb downstream of cesD in chromosome of BtB2-4, CER057 and CER074. No other potential MGEs were observed in the flanking sequences of cesH of these strains. Strikingly, the ces gene cluster of pMC67 and pMC118 was found to be flanked by two copies of an IS element at each end, in opposite orientation (located ca. 2 kb from cesH and 800 bp from cesD), reminiscent of a typical class I composite transposon (designated Tnces). This IS element (named ISces) is 853 bp, contains a transposase gene and 16 bp terminal invert repeats (IR) and belongs to the IS6 family.

We used the best of three trials for quadriceps muscle and grip s

We used the best of three trials for quadriceps muscle and grip strength. Descriptive variables We collected information on the date of birth and past medical history and medications and asked the participants to complete the Functional Comorbidity Index

[27] to ascertain the CB-839 chemical structure Number of chronic diseases and medications. We measured the height and weight using standard methods, and we calculated the BMI as weight/height2 (in kilograms per square meter). Statistical BVD-523 molecular weight analyses We described the participant characteristics using means and standard deviations or medians and interquartile range if the data were skewed. Participants were analyzed in the exercise group to which they were randomized irrespective of whether they adhered to their intervention. Differences between the proportions of women in each group experiencing an adverse event were analyzed using Pearson’s χ 2 test. Functional status and bone measures (CovBMD, ToA, I max) were analyzed using

linear mixed modeling. The model included exercise group and time as fixed main effects, a group × time interaction and the baseline value of the outcome measure. In addition, random effects for participants were included. We used Stata Software version 11 (StataCorp, TX, USA) for all analyses. All reported P values are two sided. Results In the PD-332991 full RCT, 155 women were randomized to one of the three groups and 135 participants completed final assessments for the primary study (87 % compliance). For the analysis of bone outcomes, we assessed the 147 participants and 100 women provided data at all three time points (Fig. 1). The three groups were similar at baseline. Participants were generally active outside of exercise classes and healthy, with few reported chronic health conditions. In addition, 16–21 % of the participants across all the three groups were taking bisphosphonates; the median duration

of bisphosphonate use across all the three groups was 48 months or greater. A summary of descriptive variables is provided (Table 1). Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants who underwent imaging analysis of bone health; data are reported as mean (standard deviation), median (interquartile range), or frequency (percent) Descriptive variables Afatinib Balance and tone (n = 45) Once a week (n = 53) Twice a week (n = 49) Age (years) 69.9 (3.1) 69.4 (3.0) 69.2 (3.0) Height (cm) 161.4 (6.7) 160.8 (7.1) 162.6 (6.6) Weight (kg) 67.2 (11.4) 68.1 (14.4) 71.2 (14.5) Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.8 (3.8) 26.2 (5.0) 26.9 (4.8) Number of chronic diseases (n) 2 (1–3) 1 (1–2) 2 (1–3.5) Current bisphosphonate use 9 (20.0 %) 11 (20.8 %) 8 (16.3 %) Duration of use (median months) 72 (60, 120) 60 (18, 120) 48 (12, 84) Physical activity PASE (median/day) 121.1 (88.5, 156.0) 110.6 (68.3, 147.3) 109.6 (109.6, 162.7) (n = 48) Physical performance 6MWT (m) 525.9 (72.0) (n = 41) 520.1 (62.3) (n = 52) 512.

PubMed 8 Cadieux PA, Burton J, Devillard E, Reid G: Lactobacillu

PubMed 8. Cadieux PA, Burton J, Devillard E, Reid G: Lactobacillus by-products inhibit the growth and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Physiol Pharmacol 2009,60(Suppl 6):13–18.PubMed 9. Anukam KC, Osazuwa E, Osemene GI, Ehigiagbe F, Bruce AW, Reid G: Clinical study comparing probiotic Lactobacillus GR-1 and RC-14 with metronidazole vaginal gel to treat symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. Microbes Infect 2006,

8:2772–2776.PubMedCrossRef 10. Parma M, Dindelli M, Caputo L, Redaelli A, Quaranta L, Candiani M: The role of vaginal Lactobacillus Rhamnosus (Normogin(R)) in preventing Bacterial Vaginosis in women with history of recurrences, undergoing surgical menopause: a prospective pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2013, 17:1399–1403.PubMed 11. Boskey ER, Telsch KM, Whaley KJ, Moench TR, Cone RA: Acid production by vaginal flora in vitro is consistent with the rate and extent of vaginal acidification. Infect Immun 1999, 67:5170–5175.PubMedCentralPubMed 12. Vallor AC, Antonio MA, Hawes SE, Hillier SL: Factors NVP-BGJ398 nmr associated with acquisition of,

or persistent colonization by, vaginal lactobacilli: role of hydrogen peroxide production. J Infect Dis 2001, 184:1431–1436.PubMedCrossRef 13. Homayouni A, Bastani P, Ziyadi S, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Ghalibaf M, Mortazavian AM, Mehrabany EV: Effects of probiotics on the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis: a review. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2014, 18:79–86.PubMedCrossRef 14. Bruce AW, Reid G: Intravaginal instillation of lactobacilli for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections. Can J Microbiol 1988, 34:339–343.PubMedCrossRef 15. Eschenbach

DA, Davick PR, Williams BL, Klebanoff SJ, Young-Smith K, Critchlow CM, Holmes KK: Prevalence of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol 1989, 27:251–256.PubMedCentralPubMed 16. Reid G, Bruce AW, Fraser N, Heinemann C, Owen J, Henning B: Oral probiotics can resolve urogenital infections. FEMS Immunol Med Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) Microbiol 2001, 30:49–52.PubMedCrossRef 17. Morelli L, Zonenenschain D, Del PM, Cognein P: Utilization of the intestinal tract as a delivery system for urogenital probiotics. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004, 38:S107-S110.PubMedCrossRef 18. Walter J: Ecological role of lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal tract: implications for fundamental and biomedical research. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008, 74:4985–4996.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 19. Ma B, Forney LJ, Ravel J: Vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and disease. Annu Rev Microbiol 2012, 66:371–389.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 20. Kirtzalidou E, Pramateftaki P, Kotsou M, Kyriacou A: Screening for lactobacilli with probiotic properties in the infant gut microbiota. Anaerobe 2011, 17:440–443.PubMedCrossRef 21. Pascual LM, Daniele MB, Ruiz F, find more Giordano W, Pajaro C, Barberis L: Lactobacillus rhamnosus L60, a potential probiotic isolated from the human vagina. J Gen Appl Microbiol 2008, 54:141–148.PubMedCrossRef 22.

vaginalis clinical isolates and from G vaginalis genomes deposit

vaginalis clinical isolates and from G. vaginalis genomes deposited in GenBank. The analysis of spacer

hits mapped to chromosomal sequences of G. vaginalis and non-G. vaginalis origin are provided. (XLSX 20 KB) References 1. LY333531 ic50 Catlin BW: Gardnerella vaginalis: characteristics, clinical considerations, and controversies. Clin Microbiol Rev 1992, 5:213–237.PubMed 2. Menard JP, Mazouni C, Salem-Cherif I, Fenollar F, Raoult D, Boubli L, Gamerre M, Bretelle F: High vaginal concentrations of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis in women undergoing preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol 2010, 115:134–140.PubMedCrossRef 3. Ferhers K, Twin J, Fowkes FJ, Garland SM, Fehler G, Morton AM, Hocking JS, Tabrizi SN, selleck chemicals Bradshaw CS: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) candidate bacteria: associations with BV and behavioural practices in sexually-experienced and inexperienced women. PLoS One 2012, 7:e30633.CrossRef 4. Atashili J, Poole C, Ndumbe PM, Adimora AA, Smith JS: Bacterial vaginosis and HIV acquisition: a meta-analysis of published studies. AIDS 2008, 22:1493–1501.PubMedCrossRef 5. Fredricks DN, Fiedler TL, Thomas KK, Oakley BB, Marazzo JM: Targeted PCR of vaginal APR-246 nmr bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol 2007, 45:3270–3276.PubMedCrossRef 6. Turovskiy Y, Sutyak Noll K, Chikindas

ML: The aetiology of bacterial vaginosis. J Appl Microbiol 2011, 110:1105–1128.PubMedCrossRef 7. Workowski KA, Berman SM: Centers for disease control and prevention sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines. Clin Infect Dis 2011, 53:S59-S63.PubMedCrossRef 8. Leitich H, Kiss H: Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2007, 21:375–390.PubMedCrossRef 9. Kim TK, Thomas SM, Ho M, Sharma S, Reich CI, Frank JA, Yeater KM, Biggs DR, Nakamura N, Stmpf R, Leigh SR, Tapping RI, Blanke SR, Slauch JM, Gaskins

HR, Weisbaum JS, Olsen GJ, Hoyer LL, Wilson BA: Heterogeneity of vaginal microbial communities within individuals. J Clin Microbiol 2009, 47:1181–1189.PubMedCrossRef Isoconazole 10. Zozaya-Hinchliffe M, Martin DH, Ferris MJ: Quantitative PCR assessments of bacterial species in women with and without bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol 2010, 48:1812–1819.PubMedCrossRef 11. Srinivasan S, Liu C, Mitchell CM, Fiedler TL, Thomas KK, Agnew KJ, Marazzo JM, Fredricks DN: Temporal variability of human vaginal bacteria and relationship with bacterial vaginosis. PLoS One 2010, 5:e10197.PubMedCrossRef 12. Lamont RF, Sobel JD, Akins RA, Hassan SS, Chaiworapsonga T, Kusanovic JP, Romero R: The vaginal microbiome: new information about genital tract flora using molecular based techniques. BJOG 2011, 118:533–549.PubMedCrossRef 13. Forney LJ, Foster JA, Ledger W: The vaginal flora of healthy women is not always dominated by Lactobacillus species. J Infect Dis 2006, 194:1468–1469.PubMedCrossRef 14.

placebo 174 ± 19 Nm, P > 0 05) There was thus no interaction bet

placebo 174 ± 19 Nm, P > 0.05). There was thus no interaction between treatment and time in terms of eccentric strength (P > 0.05). Muscle Soreness There was no change in background pain scores (See Figure 2D) between the two baselines (B1 = 6.00 ± 0.00 and B2 = 6.00 ± 0.00, P > 0.05).

Throughout the experimental phase, there was a non-significant trend for the placebo to demonstrate slightly larger ratings of perceived exertion (B1 = 6.00 ± 0.00, B2 = 6.00 ± 0.00, S1 = 16.62 ± 1.35 and S3 = 12.01 ± 1.25; P > 0.05) in comparison with the EPA group (B1 = 6.00 ± 0.00, B2 = 6.00 ± 0.00, S1 = 16.02 ± 0.82, S3 = 11.80 ± 1.11; P > 0.05). Cytokines In # randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# the analysis of the IL-6 data (See Figure 3), since the study population check details was heterogeneous at baseline, this baseline difference therefore had to be partialled out. After accounting for the baseline differences in IL-6 levels, there was not only a main effect of time (i.e. experimental phase) on circulating IL-6 levels (P = 0.002), but there was also an interaction

between time (B1, B2, S1, S3) and group (EPA vs. Placebo). In fact, the IL-6 levels in the EPA group, even after adjusting for baseline differences, were more augmented with exercise compared with levels in the absence of this treatment (relative to B1, the increments at S3 were 80 ± 26% in the placebo group, and 103 ± 60% in the EPA group; P = 0.020). Figure 3 Changes in IL-6 mediated inflammation for EPA and placebo groups for B1 (1 st baseline), B2 (2 nd baseline i.e. after three weeks of supplementation), S1 (after one bout of eccentric exercises) and S3 (after three bouts of weekly eccentric exercises). * indicates a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05). A repeated measures ANCOVA shows a significant

(P = 0.002) main effect of time (differences between B1 to S1, and B1 to S3) as well as an interaction between time and group (P = 0.020). Data are mean ± SEM. Evaluation of bivariate associations At day one (i.e. B1) and day twenty-one (i.e. B2), there were significant associations between isometric, eccentric and concentric strength only (r = 0.668 (isometric vs. concentric), r = 0.635 (isometric vs. eccentric), r = 0.802 (concentric Progesterone vs. eccentric); p < 0.01 at B1 and (r = 0.688, r = 0.624, r = 0.790; p < 0.01) at B2). IL-6 level was not associated with any strength measure. RPE was constant across the population so no association could be computed. At days twenty-three (i.e. S1) and forty-four (i.e. S3), there was still a significant association between isometric, eccentric and concentric strength (r = 0.752, r = 0.819, r = 0.845; p < 0.001 at S1; r = 0.861, r = 0.797, r = 0.901; p < 0.001 at S3). IL-6 level was still not associated with any strength measure (P > 0.05). RPE, though now varying between participants, still showed no association either with strength measures or IL-6 levels (P > 0.05).

Mol Ecol 14:3017–3031CrossRefPubMed Noonan BP, Gaucher P (2006) R

Mol Ecol 14:3017–3031CrossRefPubMed Noonan BP, Gaucher P (2006) Refugial isolation and secondary contact in the dyeing poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius. Mol Ecol 15:4425–4435CrossRefPubMed Noonan BP, Wray KP (2006) Neotropical diversification: the effects of a complex history on diversity within the poison frog genus Dendrobates. J Biogeogr Ulixertinib 33:1007–1020CrossRef Palumbi S, Martin A, Romano S, McMillan WO, Stice L, Grabowski G (1991) The simple fool’s guide to PCR. Version 2. Privately published document compiled by S. Palumbi. Department of Zoology, University Hawaii. Honolulu Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses

to recent climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:637–669CrossRef Patzelt E (1989) Fauna del Ecuador. Banco Central del Ecuador, Quito Pearman PB, Guisan A, Broennimann O, Randin CF (2007) Niche dynamics in space and time. Trends Ecol Evol 23:149–158CrossRef Peterson AT, Soberón J, Sánchez-Cordero V (1999) Conservation of ecological niches in evolutionary time. Science 285:1265–1267 Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Shapire RE (2006) Maximum entropy modeling Palbociclib mouse of species geographic distributions. Ecol Model 190:231–259CrossRef Posada D, Crandall KA (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution.

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4 (http://​beast ​bio ​ed ​ac ​uk/​Tracer) No well supported top

4 (http://​beast.​bio.​ed.​ac.​uk/​Tracer). No well supported topological differences were found between the BI and ML trees; the ML tree was used in the subsequent analysis. Divergence in climate envelopes and allopatry Climate envelopes for western and eastern Amazonian Atelopus were modelled, subsequently mapped into geographic space and compared. Momelotinib clinical trial For our approach we used the presence data points listed in the Appendix (30 for all western and 54 for all eastern Amazonian Atelopus; Fig. 2). We created models based on seven macroscale bioclimatic parameters (Table 2) describing the see more availability of thermal energy and water, widely used in climate envelope models (e.g. Carnaval and

Moritz 2008; Rödder and Lötters 2009). Using DIVA-GIS 5.4 (Hijmans et al. 2001), bioclimatic parameters were extracted from the WorldClim

1.4 interpolation model with grid cell resolution 2.5 min for the period 1950–2000 (Hijmans et al. GDC-0941 nmr 2005) at (i) the species records as well as (ii) at 1,000 random points within both the MCP of the western and eastern Atelopus presence. For comparison, we computed boxplots with XLSTAT 2009 (Addinsoft). Subsequently, climate envelope models were generated and mapped with MaxEnt 3.2.19 (Phillips et al. 2006) based on the principle of maximum entropy (Jaynes 1957). This approach yields more reliable results than comparable methods (e.g. Elith et al. 2006; Heikkinen et al. 2006; Wisz et al. 2008), especially when data points for species number relatively few (e.g. Hernandez et al. 2006). Using default Hydroxychloroquine solubility dmso settings, 25% of the data points were randomly reserved for model testing (duplicate presence records

in one grid cell were automatically removed). Prediction accuracy was evaluated through threshold-independent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) method (e.g. Hanley and McNeil 1982). We acknowledge that there is currently some discussion about the suitability of AUC (Lobo et al. 2008). However, for our application AUC is the best possible choice. Elith and Graham (2009) pointed out that none of the frequently applied statistics in AUC are misleading and that appropriate statistics relevant to the application of the model need to be selected. The logistic MaxEnt output was chosen which is continuous and linear scaled (0–1, with 0.1 being the minimum Maxent value at the training records already suggesting suitability to the species under study; Phillips et al. 2006). Table 2 AUC values per model, climate envelope overlap in terms of I and D values and assessment of their similarity and equivalency via randomization tests (see text) Bioclimatic parameter Model fit D I AUCWestern, AUCEastern Overlap Identity Similarity Overlap Identity Similarity Western, Eastern Western, Eastern Annual mean temperature 0.798, 0.750 0.93 ns <0.01, <0.05 0.94 ns <0.01, <0.05 Mean monthly temperature range 0.796, 0.896 0.58 <0.01 <0.01, ns 0.72 <0.05 <0.

Note that the surface area of the SrTiO3(001) substrate we used f

Note that the surface area of the SrTiO3(001) substrate we used for growth is 5 × 5 mm2. We may indirectly visualize the growth evolution of the Ivacaftor EuTiO3 films from the spacial morphological nonuniformity. As shown in Figure 1a, the existence of side facets observed at the top of micro-crystals reveals an initial nucleation growth in cross-like shape. The nucleation then processes from cross-shaped into tetragonal and after that into cuboidal. Accompanying the coalescence of cuboid in the first layer, nucleation on the second layer starts and develops, as shown in Figure 1b. Figure 1c,d clearly reveals

the coalescence process of the micro-crystals on the second layer. A crisscross consisting of dense crosses shown in Figure 1c forms to coalesce the side facets of conjoined micro-crystals. Figure 1d shows coalescence of the crisscross on top of layers. The complete coalescence selleck screening library of the crisscross results

in a great smooth surface of the films shown in Figure 1e. Interestingly, the crosses and the micron-sized tetragon develop regularly and orient highly, which reveals that the films are highly oriented and suggests a tetragonal structure of the film. This indication is evidenced by the following TEM and HRXRD results. Figure 1f shows a cross-sectional SEM image taken on an arbitrary portion of the sample. A layer with a uniform thickness of Selleck EPZ5676 about 600 nm is clearly observed. Figure 1 Top-view and side-view SEM images. Bird’s-eye view from the (a) edge, (b) near-edge, (c) middle-of-edge-and-center, (d) near-center, and (e) center of one sample surface. Note that the surface area of the SrTiO3(001) substrate is

5 × 5 mm2. (f) Cross-sectional SEM image taken in an arbitrary portion of the sample. To directly Morin Hydrate investigate this peculiar epitaxial growth of the EuTiO3/SrTiO3(001) structure, the interface of the structure was examined by TEM. Figure 2a shows a cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron micrograph of the EuTiO3/SrTiO3(001) interface along the SrTiO3[ ] zone axis. The lattice planes of the EuTiO3 film are clearly resolved and are found to be well ordered. Consecutive lattice planes at the interface between the film and the substrate is clear, which precisely and directly evidences a well epitaxial relationship between the deposited film and the substrate, although there might be few dislocations in the interface to release the internal stress due to slight lattice mismatch. The insets in Figure 2a show the high-resolution micrographs of the EuTiO3 films and SrTiO3 substrate taken in focus, respectively. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns of the films and substrate were also taken and are shown in Figure 2b,c, respectively.