Figure 8a presents the 10-nm-thick Ag film deposited on glass, whereas Figure 8b shows an image of the uncoated substrate. Two-dimensional histograms containing surface height Necrostatin-1 molecular weight GSK872 mw values determined from the respective topographies are also shown. The obtained Ag
film exhibited a root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of 0.177 nm. The images (1 μm × 1 μm or 512 × 512 pixels) were automatically plane-fitted (to compensate for any sample tilts), and a color scale was used to represent the height distribution. The Z axes of the height histograms were scaled relative to the peak height. In addition, the surface of the evaporated Ag/glass film usually had an RMS roughness above 5 nm , which is an order of magnitude greater than that for the optical monitored ion etching treated E-beam coating with IAD films. Figure 8 AFM topography images of (a) an ultra-smooth, thin Ag film on glass (B270) and (b) an uncoated glass substrate (B270). (c,d) Histograms (2D surface selleck products height values) obtained from the respective topography images. Electrical properties The ideal work function of Ag is 4.4 eV, which is smaller than that of TiO2 (4 to 6 eV)  and higher than that of SKh (3.03 to 3.41 eV) . When two layers are in contact with each other, the Fermi levels align in equilibrium by the transfer of electrons from
Ag to SiO2 and TiO2. The electrical properties of the system improve under Exoribonuclease these conditions. In this case, there is no barrier for the electron flow
between Ag and SiO2, which means that the electrons can easily move from the Ag layer to the SiO2 layer. According to Schottky’s theory, we expect high carrier concentrations in multilayer TAS films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Figures 9 and 10 show the XPS spectra of a TAS sample in the Si 2p, Ti 2p, O 1s, and Ag 3d regions. The same TiO2, SiO2, and silver peaks have also been clearly identified for other bimetallic clusters, revealing that our multilayer samples are composed of stable titanium oxide and silicon oxide films and contain pure Ag atoms. The observed peak positions are very close to those reported for ideal vacuum-evaporated TiO2, SiO2, and silver films, with the differences (including those between the 3d5/2 and 3d3/2 peaks for silver, 6.0 eV) also being exactly the same as the handbook values reported for zero-valent silver . This observation suggests that most of the silver atoms in the TAS multilayers are in the zero-valent state. One would expect that a significant amount of the outer metal atoms is oxidized from Ag0 to Ag+1 upon thiolate formation, with a shift of the Ag 3d5/2 peak to higher binding energies (by 0.7 to 0.9 eV). Figure 9 Relationship between atomic percentage and etching depth, determined by XPS analysis. Figure 10 XPS analysis of the bonds. (a) The oxide bond. (b) The Si-O bond of SiO2.