Five hours later, PBMCs were harvested and analyzed for CD107b an

Five hours later, PBMCs were harvested and analyzed for CD107b and IFNγ by flow cytometry. There was a minimal background (<2%) in spontaneous CD107b cell surface mobilization and IFNγ expression (Fig. 2B). In contrast, 7.7% of CD8+ cells harvested before

surgery degranulated and elaborated IFNγ in response to autologous tumor cells, revealing a pre-existing CTL response against the tumor. The frequency of IFNγ+CD107b+ CTLs increased to 24.5% by 37 days following surgery and intracavitary IFNγ gene transfer. The frequency of tumor-reactive CTLs increased with subsequent vaccinations, peaking at a 38% IFNγ+/CD107b+ CTLs measured 14 days after the third vaccination (Fig. 2B). In contrast to the CTL response, click here vaccination was not associated with any clear trend in the

percentage of CD4+Fox3P+ regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood (Fig. 2C) [29]. The majority of GemA patients will ultimately develop GBM and succumb to their disease despite surgery and adjuvant therapy [4]. Compared to the more aggressive GBM that has a median time to progression of 6.9 months [2], we propose that GemA is an attractive target for immunological therapies that may work more slowly and, potentially, more effectively in this earlier and less aggressive form of astrocytoma to induce tumor regression and anti-tumor immunity. This case NVP-BKM120 chemical structure report is not sufficient to make firm conclusions about the ability of the combination of IFNγ gene transfer and CpG/lysate vaccination to prevent progression of GemA to GBM, however the data do demonstrate that the therapy is feasible in a large animal model. Our results raise several interesting points that warrant attention. In the present study, the autologous tumor cells grew too slowly to generate adequate lysate after the first vaccination; therefore, we administered

allogeneic anaplastic astrocytoma lysate for the remaining four vaccinations. Interestingly, the first vaccination induced an IgG response through specific to two antigens in the autologous tumor sample that were approximately 50–65 kDa in molecular weight, as seen at day 51 (Fig. 2A). Vaccination with allogeneic lysate apparently primed a polyclonal IgG response to several other autologous antigens. While the identity of these IgG epitopes (or the T cell epitopes) was not determined, our results demonstrate that CpG/lysate vaccination is a feasible method to break immunological tolerance to multiple glioma antigens. Although preliminary, our data indicate that autologous tumor cell lysate production may not always be feasible in WHO II grade gliomas, but allogeneic WHO III grade lysates could be used as a scalable “off the shelf” antigen source. We are currently treating additional dogs to better define the logistics, efficacy, and safety of this therapy.

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