Four new site point mutants showing the effects of side-chain alteration at subunit interfaces are also enzymatically characterised. The LmPYK tetramer crystals grown with ammonium sulphate as precipitant adopt an active-like conformation, with sulphate ions at the active and effector sites. The sulphates occupy positions similar to those of the phosphates of ligands bound Baf-A1 purchase to active (R-state) and constitutively active (nonallosteric) PYKs from several species, and provide insight into the structural roles
of the phosphates of the substrates and effectors. Crystal soaking in sulphate-free buffers was found to induce major conformational changes in the tetramer. In particular, the unwinding of the A alpha 6′ helix and the inward hinge movement of the B domain are coupled with a significant widening (4 angstrom) of the tetramer caused by lateral movement of the C domains.
The two new LmPYK structures and the activity studies of site point mutations described in this article are consistent with a developing picture of allosteric activity in which localised changes in protein flexibility govern the distribution of conformer families adopted by the tetramer in its active and inactive states. (C) Rabusertib in vivo 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“NMDA receptors are a subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors. They are trafficked and/or clustered at synapses by the post-synaptic density (PSD)-95 membrane associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of scaffolding proteins that associate with NMDA receptor NR2 subunits via their C-terminal glutamate serine (aspartate/glutamate) valine motifs. We have carried out a systematic study investigating in a heterologous expression system, the selleck compound association of the four major NMDA receptor subtypes with the PSD-95 family of MAGUK proteins, chapsyn-110, PSD-95, synapse associated protein (SAP) 97 and SAP102. We report that although each PSD-95 MAGUK was shown to co-immunoprecipitate
with NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B, NR1/NR2C and NR1/NR2D receptor subtypes, they elicited differential effects with regard to the enhancement of total NR2 subunit expression which then results in an increased cell surface expression of NMDA receptor subtypes. PSD-95 and chapsyn-110 enhanced NR2A and NR2B total expression which resulted in increased NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B receptor cell surface expression whereas SAP97 and SAP102 had no effect on total or cell surface expression of these subtypes. PSD-95, chapsyn-110, SAP97 and SAP102 had no effect on either total NR2C and NR2D subunit expression or cell surface NR1/NR2C and NR1/NR2D expression. A comparison of PSD-95 alpha, PSD-95(3 and PSD-95 alpha(C3S,C5S) showed that PSD-95-enhanced cell surface expression of NR1/NR2A receptors was dependent upon the PSD-95 N-terminal C3,C5 cysteines.