In the comparison of the symptom score, there was a constant decrease in the classroom with indoor plants but not in the classroom without indoor plants. However, multiple regression analysis showed that the subjective symptom degree of sick school syndrome had little relation to indoor plants.”
“Advances in neonatal neuroimaging have improved detection of preterm brain injury responsible for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development. Increasingly sophisticated
MR imaging setups allow scanning during find more early preterm life. In this review, we investigated how brain MR imaging in preterm infants should be timed to best predict long-term outcome. Given the strong evidence that structural brain abnormalities are related to long-term neurodevelopment, MR imaging should preferably be performed at term-equivalent age. Early
MR imaging is promising because it can guide early intervention studies and is indispensable in research on preterm brain injury.”
“Autophagy is the principle pathway within cells involved in clearing damaged proteins and organelles. Therefore autophagy is necessary to maintain the turnover balance of peptides and homoeostasis. Autophagy occurs at basal levels under normal conditions but can be upregulated by chemical inducers or stress conditions. The zebrafish (Danio CA3 purchase redo) serves as a versatile tool to understand the functions of genes implicated in autophagy. We report the identification of the zebrafish orthologues of mammalian genes MAP1LC3A (map1lc3a) and MAP1LC3B (map1lc3b) by phylogenetic and conserved synteny analysis and we examine their expression during embryonic development The zebrafish map1lc3a and map1lc3b genes both show maternally contributed transcripts in early embryogenesis. However, levels of map1lc3a transcript steadily increase until at least 120 h post-fertilisation
while the levels of map1lc3b show a more variable pattern across developmental time. We have also validated the LC3I ratio/LC3I immunoblot autophagy assay in the presence of chloroquine selleck kinase inhibitor (a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor). We found that the LC3II/LC3I ratio is significantly increased in the presence of sodium azide with chloroquine supporting that hypoxia induces autophagy in zebrafish. This was supported by our qPCR assay that showed increased map1lc3a transcript levels in the presence of sodium azide. In contrast, levels of map1lc3b transcripts were reduced in the presence of rapamycin but the decrease in the presence of sodium azide did not reach statistical significance. Our study supports the use of zebrafish for analysing the interplay between hypoxia, development and autophagy. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Hippocampal function, including spatial cognition and stress responses, matures during adolescence.