Male 10-week-old BALB/cA mice (CLEA Japan, Inc , Tokyo, Japan) we

Male 10-week-old BALB/cA mice (CLEA Japan, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) were housed at 23–25 °C and 50–60% relative humidity with a 12 h light-dark cycle. The mice were fed a CLEA Rodent

Diet CA-1 (CLEA Japan, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) for 1 week before commencement of experiments. The experimental diet consisted of 5% JBOVS mixed with CLEA Rodent Diet CA-1 (control diet) excluding fibre contents. The mice were fed the experimental diet for a week after a week of the control diet intakes. Thirty-two fecal pellets were collected from the mice. The pellets were lyophilized and then stored at −80 °C. The supernatants of the collected samples from the in vitro experiments were suspended in 10% (v/v) deuterium oxide (D2O) and 1 mM sodium 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate (DSS) as an internal standard. JBOVS and 32 fecal samples from the in vivo experiments were freeze-dried and 50 mg of JBOVS and 5 mg of the freeze-dried fecal samples were extracted with 600 μl of a phosphate buffer solution (0.1 M K2HPO4/KH2PO4, pH 7.0), containing 90% D2O and 1 mM DSS at 50 °C for 5 min. After centrifugation, the extracted supernatant was transferred TSA HDAC ic50 into a 5 mm ø NMR tube for NMR measurements. All one dimensional (1D) Watergate spectra were acquired at 298 K on a DRX-500 spectrometer (Bruker Biospin,

Rheinstetten, Germany) equipped with a 1H inverse triple-resonance probe with triple-axis gradients (Bruker Biospin) as previously described ( Date, Iikura, Yamazawa, Moriya, & Kikuchi, 2012). Briefly, 32,768 data points with a spectral width of 12,500 Hz were collected into 32 transients and 1 dummy scan, and residual water signals were suppressed by Watergate pulse sequence with a 1.3-s cycle

time. Prior to Fourier transformation, the free induction decays were multiplied by an exponential window function corresponding to a 0.3 Hz line broadening factor. The acquired spectra were manually phased and baseline-corrected. Two dimensional (2D) 1H-13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence OSBPL9 (HSQC) spectra and total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) were recorded on a Bruker DRU-700 NMR spectrometer equipped with a 1H inverse cryogenically cooled probe with a z axis gradient as previously described ( Kikuchi and Hirayama, 2007 and Sekiyama et al., 2010). The HSQC NMR spectra were acquired in the range of 11.7 to −2.3 ppm in F2 (1H) using 1024 data points and 155–5 ppm in F1 (13C) using 800 data points with 64 scans per F1 increment and an interscan delay (D1) of 2 s with 16 dummy scans. The TOCSY spectra were acquired in the range of 10.7 to −1.7 ppm using 4096 (F2) and 512 (F1) data points with 16 scans and an interscan delay of 2 s with 16 dummy scans. The mixing time (D9) was set to 90 ms. The NMR spectra were processed using NMRPipe software ( Delaglio et al., 1995) and assigned using the SpinAssign program from the PRIMe website ( Chikayama et al., 2008 and Chikayama et al., 2010).

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