Several proteins that inhibit apoptosis have been identified, inc

Several proteins that inhibit apoptosis have been identified, including the members of the bcl-2 family, such as bcl-2

and bcl-xL, and the IAPs. The anti-apoptotic proteins bcl-2 and bcl-xL block the apoptotic event of mitochondrial cytochrome c release into the cytosol, and have been shown to mainly inhibit these two above-mentioned pathways. The gene encoding the IAP survivin has been cloned, and the protein characterized [18]. Survivin is Raf inhibitor thought to be expressed in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle in a cell cycle-regulated manner, and to be associated with microtubule formation of the mitotic spindle[19, 20]. As a member of the IAP family, survivin can block apoptosis triggered by a variety of apoptotic-stimulating factors. It can directly bind to and inhibit caspase-3 and caspase-7, which act at a common downstream part of the two major apoptotic pathways, and its this website overexpression in tumors has been implicated in resistance to a variety of apoptotic stimuli, including chemotherapy[17, 20]. For this reason, the survivin antisense

gene may facilitate both apoptotic pathways. Although survivin has long been considered a potential target for cancer therapy [18, 19, 21–25], the use of antisense cDNA and oligonucleotides to inhibit its expression has only recently been described [26, 27]. Previous studies have shown that reduction of survivin expression achieved by antisense strategies results in apoptotic cell death and sensitization to anticancer drugs in several tumor cell lines [26, 27]. These results suggest that survivin expression 4SC-202 chemical structure is likely important for cell survival or resistance to chemotherapy in carcinomas. CDDP acts in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Previous studies have shown that an increase in chemosensitivity is negatively correlated with survivin expression and positively correlated with rates of apoptosis[28]. The results of the study by Kojima et al

are consistent with expression of survivin in the G2/M phase[29]. These observations are consistent with an earlier finding [26] that interaction between survivin and microtubules of the mitotic spindle apparatus is necessary to prevent a default induction of apoptosis at Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. And it is reported that cisplatin induced caspase-9 activation and apoptosis in cisplatin-sensitive tumors[30]. Moreover, in a combination therapy experiment with CDDP, evidence was obtained that antisense-mediated downregulation of survivin can sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo [29]. Conclusions The survivin mutant had originally gained attention because it widely and specifically promoted apoptosis and enhanced chemotherapy, and its function and mechanism have been studied in various tumor types [9, 11, 12, 29]. However, there are many aspects of its mechanisms that are still unclear.

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