This experiment was performed three times. Statistical analysis All calculations were done using SPSS v12.0 statistical software (Chicago, IL, USA). Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation. Spearman’s coefficient of correlation, Chi-squared tests, and Mann-Whitney tests were used as appropriate. A multivariate model employing logistic regression
analysis was used to evaluate the statistical association among variables. For all tests, a two-sided P-value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Hazard ratios (HR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed to provide quantitative information about the relevance of the results of statistical analyses. Results Basic clinical information and tumor characteristics A total of 84 NSCLC patients (63 male and 21 female) treated by curative this website surgical resection were enrolled in the study; the mean age of the study participants was 58.0 ± 10.3 p53 activator years (rang, 35-78 years). Of the 84 cases, 34 were lung adenocarcinoma, 45 were squamous cell carcinoma, and five were large-cell carcinoma; 40 cases were well or moderately differentiated and 44 were poorly differentiation. Using the TNM staging system of the International Union Against Cancer (2002) , cases were classified as stage I (n = 44), stage
II (n = 19), stage III (n = 17), and stage IV (n = 4). Patient data were analyzed after a 5-year follow-up, and information was obtained from 91.6% (77 of 84) of patients. The median overall survival was 26.0 ± 2.4 months; mean overall survival was 39.3 ± 6.2 months. COX-2 expression is correlated ID-8 with VEGF profile in NSCLC tumors GSK2126458 chemical structure We first observed the association between COX-2 expression and clinicopathologic factors. As shown in Table 1 COX-2 expression varied among tumor samples. Strong COX-2 staining was observed in 45 cases (53.6%), whereas weak staining or no staining was detected in 39 cases (46.4%). COX-2 expression in tumor cells
was significantly correlated with MVD (P = 0.036) and VEGF expression (P = 0.001), but was not correlated with age, sex, smoking, TNM stage, or histology. The strength of the associations between each individual predictor and VEGF or MVD is shown in Table 2. When all of the predictors were included in a multivariate analysis, COX-2 expression in tumor tissue retained a significant association with both VEGF expression and MVD (hazard ratio, 9.836; P = 0.001; hazard ratio, 3.147; P = 0.025), demonstrating that COX-2 expression in tumor tissue is an independent predictive factor of VEGF expression and MVD in NSCLC patients. Effects of COX-2 on tumor-associated VEGF expression We next addressed whether COX-2 enhanced the proliferation of NSCLC cells. As demonstrated in Figure 1 treatment with exogenously applied COX-2 induced a prominent dose-dependent increase in the proliferation of the tumor cells used in these assays; in contrast, COX-2 failed to promote the proliferation of HBE cells, used as controls.