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“Whether intrauterine exposures to alco

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“Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African

Caribbean, urban adolescents, recruited at term birth, until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the “”any”" summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and post-natal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence

between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved,”
“The protective CH5183284 concentration effects of vitamin E (VE) against hyperthermia-induced damage in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were studied. The structure of BMEC membrane was damaged by hyperthermia treatment The VE (25 nmol/ml) efficiently increased cell viability and attenuated morphological damages in hyperthermia-treated BMEC. Compared With the control. VE significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase leakage and malondialdehyde formation in hyperthermia-treated BMEC Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase activity was Increased significantly in the presence of VE. It is inferred that below VE displayed cytoprotective effects on hyperthermia-induced damage in

BMEC through increasing intracellular antioxidant levels and decreasing lipid peroxidation (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems.

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