For highly soluble pesticides,

these formulations may res

For highly soluble pesticides,

these formulations may result in great pesticide losses shortly after application before the molecules have time to diffuse into soil aggregates and reach adsorption sites in soil colloids [2]. This phenomenon leads to pesticide residues in the food chain, and this, in turn, has adverse effects in humans including carcinogenic, mutagenic, Adavosertib solubility dmso and teratogenic effects [3]. Contamination of pesticides through volatilization, leaching, runoff, and the persistence of GDC-0068 in vivo agrochemicals in aqueous media has become a concerning environmental issue [4, 5]. In addition, agrochemicals are highly toxic to wildlife (especially mammals) and other organisms and can remain in the aquatic environment for a long time [6]. Much effort was done focusing on ways to reduce the usage of excessive agrochemicals by the development of less hazardous formulations, such as controlled release formulations, in which only a part of the active ingredient is in an immediately available form and the bulk of the herbicide is sorbed in an inert support [1, 7]. This strategy is advantageous since

it allows the gradual release of agrochemicals over time, besides preventing instant loss of agrochemicals through volatilization, leaching, and runoff [8]. Moreover, it requires less energy and manpower than the conventional methods, leading to decreased Selleck CP673451 nontarget effect and increased safety for agrochemical applicators [9, 10]. Clay has become one of the popular materials as a host of herbicides due to its unique properties such as high specific surface areas associated find more with their small particle size and ubiquitous occurrence in most soil and sediment environment [11–17]. One of the classes in the clay family is layered double hydroxide (LDH) or the so-called hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTs). This special material can be used as support in controlled-release formulations and has been proposed as the ideal solution to environmental problems caused by agrochemicals. LDHs or HTs are brucite-like layered materials with the general formula [MII

1 − x MIII X (OH)2] x+(Am−) x/n ·mH2O, where MII and MIII are divalent and trivalent cations, respectively, and X n− is the interlayer anion, which balances the positive charge generated by the presence of MIII in the layers. The layer charge is determined by the molar ratio x = MIII/(MIII + MII) which can vary between 0.2 and 0.4 [18]. LDHs have attracted the attention of the industry and academia because of their anion-exchange capability [19], low cost, ease of preparation, environmental compatibility (especially in agricultural application), and potential use in pharmaceuticals, detergents, and food additives [20]. 3,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (3,4-D) (Figure 1) is an organic anion used widely in modern agriculture to control weeds in paddy field and wheat and corn plantations [21].

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