Our data indicate that both LXH254 in vivo strains influenced IEC-DC crosstalk with distinct outcomes compared to those induced by SupMODE. In particular, these strains markedly enhanced the expression of co-stimulatory markers and downregulated IL-12, TNF-α and IL-10 secretions by mDCs. In addition, similar alterations were induced by SupOLL2809 and SupL13-Ia, thus excluding a synergistic effect of IECs. However, our model does not allow us to further elucidate this probiotic activity Alisertib because MODE-K cells do not form a confluent monolayer, instrumental to analyze the different roles played by paracellular and transcytosis pathways . Taken together, our data suggest that the
L. gasseri influence on IEC-DC crosstalk is dominant over IEC activity. Importantly, MODE-K cells and L. gasseri are able to produce different outcomes, regulatory mDCs and “low-responsive” mDCs, respectively. Another beneficial effect on host immunity arising from the interaction between epithelia SB273005 research buy and commensal bacteria is the generation of reactive oxygen species that may activate the Nrf2 pathway and lead to improved antioxidant/detoxifying defenses . The Nrf2-Keap1 complex serves as an intracellular oxidative stress sensor, and Nrf2 release, triggered by mild ROS production, activates the synthesis of a battery of cytoprotective/defensive proteins including GSH, GST and NQO1 that protect cells against oxidative stress and promote cell survival . GSH plays
a key role in the maintenance and regulation of the cell’s redox status. Our data showing opposing effects of bacterial strains on MODE-K cells’ and DCs’ intracellular GSH content are consistent with the reported pro-oxidant activity exhibited by probiotic strains  and with the improved ability of DCs to survive in an oxidant-rich environment . Under normal conditions, intracellular GSH levels depend upon the rates of GSH synthesis/oxidation and on GSH export from cells, and the GSH/GSSG pair is widely used as an indicator of redox status. Data from this study on MODE-K cells, Urease according to the literature, indicates that the lack of intracellular GSSG accumulation is associated with depletion and
increased export of intracellular GSH . In contrast, the increased intracellular GSH concentration accompanied by the increase in GSHtot export from the DCs without any measurable raise of intracellular GSSG concentration indicates the ability of DCs to respond to L. gasseri-induced oxidative stress by increasing GSH synthesis. These results, along with the results showing the improvement of GST and NQO1 activities in DCs directly exposed to L. gasseri strains or to conditioned supernatants from MODE-K cells, along with in vivo studies, further support the ability of bacterial strains to activate the Nrf-2 pathway [8, 9]. Conclusions We have demonstrated in vitro differential immunomodulatory activities of two probiotic strains of L. gasseri, isolated from different sources.