Recent work in humans has demonstrated a relationship between hippocampal volumes and the ability to infer novel spatial relationships among a set of trained landmarks , consistent with the idea that
the hippocampus constructs integrated spatial maps. A behavioral study further found sleep-related increases in spatial relational inference , indicating that early phase consolidation processes may facilitate the construction of cognitive maps. Moreover, work in rodents demonstrates that the firing patterns of hippocampal CA1 neurons predict animals’ future routes . These trajectories can represent even novel paths 30 and 31, suggesting that the hippocampus — perhaps GSK1120212 mw guided by mPFC  — may support flexible navigation by simulating and evaluating possible trajectories in the context of current goals. Integrated memories may facilitate a host of novel judgments that require knowledge of the relationships among events, such as in associative inference,
transitive inference, and acquired equivalence paradigms  (though see Ref. ). These judgments tap memory flexibility, requiring participants http://www.selleckchem.com/products/r428.html to make novel inferences on the basis of trained associations; for simplicity, we group these behaviors under the term ‘inference.’ Because integrated memories code for the relationships among learned associations (Figure 1a), they may be reinstated and the new information Baricitinib directly extracted during an inference judgment itself . Recent work has directly linked learning-phase reactivation of related memories to subsequent behavior. For instance, the degree to which previously encoded content is reactivated during new events has been shown to predict both subsequent memory for the reactivated content  and later inference (Figure 1b [4••]), consistent with the notion that reactivation supports memory strengthening and flexibility via integration. One study [4••] also demonstrated that activation in hippocampus and ventral mPFC related to later inference performance.
Moreover, that study observed functional connectivity enhancements, suggesting that memories bound in hippocampus may come to depend on mPFC as they are integrated and strengthened [4••]. Within the hippocampus, CA1 engagement during overlapping events has been shown to predict subsequent inference . The degree to which learning-phase CA1 patterns are reinstated during inference has also been shown to relate to speed and accuracy, consistent with ideas regarding this region’s role in integration . Recent work has also shown that inference is impaired in patients with lesions to ventral mPFC . Furthermore, like spatial navigation, novel inference judgments are selectively facilitated following sleep 36 and 37, emphasizing the importance of offline processes in integration.