Hargreaves-Allen et al.  suggest that MPAs are unlikely to be successful if there are high levels of conflict, numerous uncontrollable external stressors, or alternative forms of development and livelihoods
are not possible Governance is the structural, institutional, ideological, and procedural umbrella under which development programs and management practices operate. Natural resource governance can be defined as “the interactions among structures, processes and traditions that determine how power and responsibilities are exercised, how decisions are taken, and how citizens or other stakeholders have their say” . Governance determines how and whether the interactions of structures, processes, and institutions Selleck PD0332991 coalesce to solve societal and environmental problems  and . Effective governance requires the design of institutions that are instrumental in “encourag[ing] people to choose to behave in a manner that provides for certain strategic policy outcomes, particularly biodiversity conservation objectives, to be fulfilled”  and .
Governance can be evaluated based on whether it effectively supports the achievement of MPA outcomes and also whether it engages with the principles of “good” governance—including legitimacy, transparency, accountability, inclusiveness, fairness, integration, capability, and adaptability  and . OSI-744 mouse The importance of these guiding principles is generally supported by the recent literature on MPA governance, management, and development. The following section will explore three aspects of governance that are required to establish a solid base for management and development and the achievement of beneficial socio-economic and environmental outcomes from MPAs: (1) the creation
of an enabling institutional and organizational environment; (2) the process of implementation and design of MPAs; and, (3) the choice of management structures and MPA design (i.e., strict no-take, multiple use, multiple use with no-take zone). The concept of institutions often refers to both “soft” and “hard” institutions BCKDHA such as norms, rules, policies, and laws after . Institutions are manifest in formalized organizations (e.g., governmental, non-governmental, and community based organizations) and structures (e.g., co-management and MPA format) and the interactions amongst these bodies. Institutions and organizations can act as drivers, constraints, or supports for effective MPA management and local development depending on the level of institutional linkage, congruence, coordination, and cooperation across scales ,  and . The harmonization of legal frameworks and mandates, policies at various levels, local rules and regulations, cultural norms and individual attitudes is both a challenge and an imperative for enabling effective management and development. As Camargo et al.