coelicolor membrane; therefore, incorrect localization is not the

coelicolor membrane; therefore, incorrect localization is not the reason for lack of complementation of the Δpmt mutation in IB25. Even though both genes were expressed from the strong and inducible PtipA promoter, hemagglutinin-tagged PmtMtu appeared to be less abundant than hemagglutinin-tagged PmtSco, when expressed in S. coelicolor under full induction Talazoparib chemical structure (to ensure that this fainter band was not due to a difference in the amount of protein loaded, the membrane was stained with Coomassie brilliant blue, Fig. S3). In addition, there appeared to be limited degradation of this protein, presumably related to the fact the S. coelicolor has an abundance of extracellular proteases

(Jayapal et al., 2007). It is unlikely that this slightly lower abundance

is the reason for lack of complementation, because hemagglutinin-tagged PmtSco was able to complement the Δpmt mutation for φC31 plaque formation even in the absence of inducer when expression relied on background PtipA transcription levels, revealing that even low levels of functional Pmt are sufficient for complementation (Fig. S4). The previous result prompted us to look for differences between PmtSco and PmtMtu to search for clues to the nonfunctionality of PmtMtu in S. coelicolor. Protein mannosylation by PmtMtu requires Sec translocation, and it has been proposed that physical interactions between the Sec complex and Pmt explain this requirement (VanderVen et al., 2005); therefore, GSK 3 inhibitor the nonfunctionality of PmtMtu in S. coelicolor could result from its inability to interact with the S. coelicolor Sec translocon. Upon alignment of the Pmt protein sequences from

mycobacteria and Streptomyces species, it was clear that the main difference is the presence in the Streptomyces Pmt sequences, including that of S. coelicolor, of an N-terminal extension. According to the prediction for topology of mycobacterial Pmt, this N-terminal extension should be located on the intracellular side of the membrane (Lommel & Strahl, ID-8 2009; Fig. S5). Because this extension could prove important for Pmt function in S. coelicolor (if, for example, it is required specifically for interaction with the S. coelicolor Sec translocon), we constructed two modified versions of the Rv1002c gene to encode chimeric Pmt proteins and cloned them in pIJ6902; in the first construct (pBL20, Table 1), 55 amino acids of PmtSco were affixed to the N-terminus of PmtMtu, giving PmtMtu + 55, whereas in the second construct (pBL21, Table 1), 178 amino acids of PmtSco, which include the first extracellular loop where acidic residues essential for activity are localized (VanderVen et al., 2005), were substituted for the equivalent N-terminal region of PmtMtu (Fig. S5). When pBL20 was introduced into the Δpmt mutant IB25, no complementation was observed, either for φC31 plaque formation (Fig. 4a, plate 5) or for Apa glycosylation (Fig. 4b and c, lane 5).

coelicolor membrane; therefore, incorrect localization is not the

coelicolor membrane; therefore, incorrect localization is not the reason for lack of complementation of the Δpmt mutation in IB25. Even though both genes were expressed from the strong and inducible PtipA promoter, hemagglutinin-tagged PmtMtu appeared to be less abundant than hemagglutinin-tagged PmtSco, when expressed in S. coelicolor under full induction see more (to ensure that this fainter band was not due to a difference in the amount of protein loaded, the membrane was stained with Coomassie brilliant blue, Fig. S3). In addition, there appeared to be limited degradation of this protein, presumably related to the fact the S. coelicolor has an abundance of extracellular proteases

(Jayapal et al., 2007). It is unlikely that this slightly lower abundance

is the reason for lack of complementation, because hemagglutinin-tagged PmtSco was able to complement the Δpmt mutation for φC31 plaque formation even in the absence of inducer when expression relied on background PtipA transcription levels, revealing that even low levels of functional Pmt are sufficient for complementation (Fig. S4). The previous result prompted us to look for differences between PmtSco and PmtMtu to search for clues to the nonfunctionality of PmtMtu in S. coelicolor. Protein mannosylation by PmtMtu requires Sec translocation, and it has been proposed that physical interactions between the Sec complex and Pmt explain this requirement (VanderVen et al., 2005); therefore, BIBF 1120 ic50 the nonfunctionality of PmtMtu in S. coelicolor could result from its inability to interact with the S. coelicolor Sec translocon. Upon alignment of the Pmt protein sequences from

mycobacteria and Streptomyces species, it was clear that the main difference is the presence in the Streptomyces Pmt sequences, including that of S. coelicolor, of an N-terminal extension. According to the prediction for topology of mycobacterial Pmt, this N-terminal extension should be located on the intracellular side of the membrane (Lommel & Strahl, Masitinib (AB1010) 2009; Fig. S5). Because this extension could prove important for Pmt function in S. coelicolor (if, for example, it is required specifically for interaction with the S. coelicolor Sec translocon), we constructed two modified versions of the Rv1002c gene to encode chimeric Pmt proteins and cloned them in pIJ6902; in the first construct (pBL20, Table 1), 55 amino acids of PmtSco were affixed to the N-terminus of PmtMtu, giving PmtMtu + 55, whereas in the second construct (pBL21, Table 1), 178 amino acids of PmtSco, which include the first extracellular loop where acidic residues essential for activity are localized (VanderVen et al., 2005), were substituted for the equivalent N-terminal region of PmtMtu (Fig. S5). When pBL20 was introduced into the Δpmt mutant IB25, no complementation was observed, either for φC31 plaque formation (Fig. 4a, plate 5) or for Apa glycosylation (Fig. 4b and c, lane 5).

The mobile phase A contained 2% acetonitrile in water, 01% formi

The mobile phase A contained 2% acetonitrile in water, 0.1% formic acid. The organic phase B contained 2% water in acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid. Peptides were eluted

with a linear gradient of a 5–60% mobile GSK-J4 phase B over 60 min at 0.2 μL min−1. Spectra were acquired in the automated mode using Information Dependent Acquisition. Precursor ions were selected in Q1 using the enhanced MS (EMS) mode as a survey scan. The EMS was followed by an enhanced resolution scan of the three most intense ions at a low speed of 250 AMU s−1 to determine the ion charge states and then by an enhanced product ion scan. The precursor ions were fragmented by collisionally activated dissociation in the Q2 collision cell. The fragment ions generated were captured and mass analyzed in the Q3 linear ion trap. Protein identifications find more were obtained from the MS/MS spectra data sets using mascot (version 1.6b9, Matrix Science, London, UK, available at http://www.matrixscience.com). Mass tolerances of 0.5 Da for the precursor and 0.3 Da for the fragment ion masses were used. Carbamidomethyl-cysteine was the fixed modification and one missed cleavage for trypsin was allowed. Searches were conducted using the Bacteria subset of the NCBInr database (http://www.ncbi.nih.gov). Wild-type V. shilonii AK-1 cells were taken directly from swimming plates at different soft agar concentrations

and suspended in 10 mM HEPES buffer, pH 8.0. Cell samples were stained negatively with 1% uranyl acetate, isolated hook–basal bodies (HBB) were stained with 2% ammonium hepta-molibdate, pH 8.0, and observed using a JEM-1200EXII electron microscope (JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). Micrographs were taken at an accelerating voltage of 80 and 120 kV for cells and HBB, respectively. Vibrio shilonii displays a constitutive single-sheathed polar flagellum when grown in a liquid Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 medium. Figure 1a shows an electron micrograph of a typical swimmer bacterial cell grown in a liquid culture. We tested the effect of amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, on the ability of this marine bacterium to swim on soft agar plates (0.3% agar).

Figure 1b shows that in the presence of 2 mM amiloride dissolved in 2% DMSO, the swimming capacity of V. shilonii in soft agar plates is diminished as compared with cells swimming under the same conditions in the absence of amiloride. Consistent with this result, we detected that amiloride reduces swimming drastically in cells growing in liquid cultures that were observed using high-intensity dark-field microscopy. The effect of amiloride on the growth rate of V. shilonii in liquid cultures was also tested. Figure 1c shows that the growth rate of control cells is indistinguishable from a culture to which a volume of 2% DMSO was added. However, in the presence of 2 mM amiloride, a slight decrease in the growth rate of V. shilonii that recovers after a few hours was observed.

Horizontal grip force (GF), vertical lift force (LF) and first do

Horizontal grip force (GF), vertical lift force (LF) and first dorsal interosseous electromyographic activity (EMG) were measured. The lift (dynamic) and hold (stationary) phase of the task GSI-IX concentration were analysed. Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the control and fatigue conditions for the 15 measured parameters. However, post-intervention GF was reduced with fatigue compared with the control condition (hold phase), whereas GF coefficient of variation (hold phase) and root mean square EMG (lift phase) increased with fatigue. Fatigue also disrupted the temporal

relationship between GF and LF (assessed by cross-correlation of the derivative of GF and LF). The maximum cross-correlation coefficient was significantly Z-VAD-FMK research buy reduced with fatigue compared with the control condition. Grip strategy and the kinetics of the lifting movement (minimum LF, maximum LF, maximum derivative of LF, and maximum acceleration) were unchanged with fatigue. Our results suggest that fatigued subjects generate more EMG to lift and hold an object but produce less force and are less able to match changes in LF with changes in GF. Fatigued subjects also exhibit greater fluctuation in GF while holding objects. “
“Cerebellar development in the postnatal period is mainly characterized by

an intense cellular proliferation in the external granular layer, followed by migration of granular cells in the molecular layer along the Bergmann glia (BG) fibers. Cerebellar ontogenesis undergoes dramatic

modulation by thyroid hormones (THs), although their mechanism of action in this organ is still largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that THs induce astrocytes to secrete epidermal growth factor (EGF), which thus promotes cerebellar neuronal proliferation and extracellular matrix remodeling in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the TH/EGF pathway on granule neuronal migration. By taking advantage of rat explant and dissociated culture assays, we showed that cerebellar astrocytes treated with TH promote granule cell migration. The addition of neutralizing antibodies against EGF or the pharmacological inhibitor of EGF signaling, bis-tyrphostin, completely Liothyronine Sodium inhibited TH-astrocyte-induced migration. Likewise, the addition of EGF itself greatly increased neuronal migration. Treatment of BG-dissociated cultures by EGF dramatically induced an alteration in cell morphology, characterized by an elongation in the glial process. Both neuronal migration and BG elongation were inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitor PD98059, suggesting that these events might be associated. Together, our results suggest that, by inducing EGF secretion, THs promote neuronal migration through BG elongation.

Cell dry weight (cdw) was determined using a filtration method as

Cell dry weight (cdw) was determined using a filtration method as described

previously (Willquist & van Niel, 2010). Protein levels were determined according to Bradford (1976) using bovine serum albumin as the standard. Nucleotide sequences of the investigated genes were retrieved either from the IMG database (http://img.jgi.doe.gov/cgi-bin/pub/main.cgi) or from Volasertib cost GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). Sequence alignments were performed using clustal x (V1.83) (Jeanmougin et al., 1998). Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed using the distance (neighborhood-joining) method. Gene-neighborhood analysis was performed using the ortholog neighborhood viewer available at the IMG site. Cells (OD660 nm 0.3–0.4) were harvested (50 mL) during the mid-logarithmic growth phase by centrifugation (10 min, 4570 g). Cell pellets were suspended in Tris-HCl buffer (100 mM, pH 7.2) containing MgCl2 (5 mM) and NaCl (40 mM)) (Willquist & van Niel, 2010). Cells were disrupted by sonification CX5461 and CEs were prepared by centrifugation (10 min, 16 000 g). Membrane and cytosolic fractions were obtained by additional centrifugation (1 h, 100 000 g) of the CE, where the membranes were resuspended in the indicated buffer. Extracts were stored

at −20 °C until further use. The determination of enzyme activities was carried out with two biological and four technical replicates. Enzyme activities of PPDK (EC 2.7.9.1), PK (EC 2.7.1.40), ATP- and PPi-dependent (PFK) (ATP-PFK, EC 2.7.1.11, PPi-PFK, EC 2.7.1.90) were determined in the described Tris buffer, which was additionally reduced with dithiothreitol (5 mM). Assays were performed at 50 °C, to ensure auxiliary enzyme activity. All medroxyprogesterone auxiliary enzymes were purchased from Sigma Aldrich. Substrate conversions were coupled to the oxidation of NADH (ɛ334=6.18 mM−1 cm−1). The PPDK and PK assays were coupled to the conversion of pyruvate to lactate using l-LDH as an auxiliary enzyme. To determine the influence of the PPi concentration on PK activity, low-molecular-weight

compounds were first removed from CEs (MW below 5 kDa) using a PD10 desalting column (GE Healthcare, Willquist & van Niel, 2010). These later assays were performed at 70 °C using a thermostable LDH as an auxiliary enzyme. The PFK activity was assayed by coupling to the reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol-3-phosphate, catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), using fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) as auxiliary enzymes. One unit of enzyme activity is defined as that amount of the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 1 μmol of substrate min−1. The reaction mixtures for PPDK contained: LDH (6.8 U, from chicken heart), NADH (0.25 mM), NH4Cl (25 mM), PEP (2 mM), AMP (2 mM) and PPi (0.4 mM); for PK: LDH (6.8 U), NADH (0.25 mM), PEP (2 mM) and ADP (2 mM); for PPi-PFK: GPDH (1.3 U, from rabbit muscle), FBA (0.

JS42 (accession no YP_987802) and Methylophaga thiooxidans DMS01

JS42 (accession no. YP_987802) and Methylophaga thiooxidans DMS010 (accession no. ZP_05103682). Mutational analysis was performed to investigate the role of ORF2 (named int) in plasmid mobilization. A 4-bp not-in-frame insertion into the int gene of pIGRKKAN was created, and this completely abolished transfer of the mutant plasmid (pIGRKKAN-NdeI), which indicated that the integrase-like protein functions in plasmid mobilization. To localize the putative oriT of MOBpIGRK, a two-plasmid system was constructed in E. coli S17-1 composed of (1) a helper replicon pWSK-int (pWSK29 Apr vector containing MOBpIGRK – a source of the predicted integrase)

and (2) compatible nonmobilizable vector pBGS18 (Kmr) carrying the putative oriT of pIGRK. As it was not possible to predict the oriT from the nucleotide sequence of Selleck Target Selective Inhibitor Library pIGRK, several DNA fragments (ranging in size from 370 to 455 bp) covering the whole plasmid genome were amplified by PCR and cloned into pBGS18. Only one of the pBGS18 derivatives (pBGS18/3oriT), containing a 455-bp DNA fragment of pIGRK, including the upstream region of the int gene (Fig. 1b), was successfully transferred. None of the obtained transconjugants carried the helper plasmid, which precluded the possibility that pBGS18/3oriT was transferred as a plasmid co-integrate.

In summary, this series of experiments revealed the presence of a novel two-component mobilization system in pIGRK composed of an integrase-like protein Int and an oriT, placed upstream UK-371804 Ketotifen of the int gene. The host range of the mobilizable plasmids pIGMS31KAN, pIGMS32KAN, and pIGRKKAN was examined by testing whether they could be transferred and maintained in several hosts belonging to (1) the Gammaproteobacteria (E. coli DH5αR – a control strain, Serratia sp. OS9) and (2) the Alphaproteobacteria (A. tumefaciens LBA1010, Brevundimonas sp. LM18, P. aminovorans JCM 7685, R. etli CE3). Transconjugants containing the plasmids were obtained exclusively with the gammaproteobacterial recipients, which indicated that either the replication or the mobilization systems of the plasmids are not functional

for the alphaproteobacterial hosts. To test the host range of the MOB modules of pIGMS31KAN, pIGMS32KAN, and pIGRKKAN, attempts were made to introduce a DIY-series genetic cassette (from plasmid pDIY-312T; Dziewit et al., 2011), carrying a replication system specific for Alphaproteobacteria, derived from plasmid pAMI3 of Paracoccus aminophilus JCM 7686, into the plasmids. Unfortunately, it was only possible to introduce the DIY cassette into pIGMS32KAN (resulting plasmid pMS32-DIY). Therefore, in the case of pIGMS31KAN and pIGRKKAN, an alternative strategy was applied, in which PCR-amplified DNA fragments carrying MOBpIGMS31 and MOBpIGRK were cloned separately into nonmobilizable vector pMAO1 (carries the replication system of a BHR plasmid RA3, functional in Alphaproteobacteria).

Consequently, in this study, we assess dosimetric differences fro

Consequently, in this study, we assess dosimetric differences from the observed www.selleckchem.com/products/Neratinib(HKI-272).html clinical baselines in each region rather than from absolute values. In this analysis, the four volumetric measures of

agreement (see Table 1) between the Raw TES CTVs (created by radiation therapists) and the RO-reviewed TES CTVs were computed for 140 randomly selected retrospective cases (40 cases seen between January 2009 and April 2009 and 100 cases seen between January 2010 and September 2010). This analysis indicates how satisfied the physicians were with the results of the algorithm and which regions required the most modifications. We refer the readers to our earlier work (17) for a comparison of the above volumetric evaluation (on 40 cases) with inter- and intraobserver variability in manual contouring. The aim of the dosimetric evaluation is to examine the clinical impact of planning using Raw TES contours. This helps to put differences in volumetric coincidence in perspective because if such differences do not result in a significant degradation in dosimetry when a Raw TES-derived plan is used to treat a reference contour, then

it is reasonable to suppose that the TES and reference contour are of equivalent VE-821 chemical structure utility for planning purposes. To investigate this, 41 anonymized consecutive patients (seen between January 2009 and April 2009) had treatment plans generated using their Raw TES PTVs as described in the “Patient characteristics

Cell press and treatment planning” section. The aforementioned dose parameters for these plans were calculated for the PTV and the nine sectors and used as the observed clinical baselines. These plans were then overlaid on the reference (RO-reviewed TES) contours and the resulting dose parameters calculated for the PTV and the nine sectors. The distribution of paired differences in the dose parameters was calculated (i.e., dose parameter of the plan generated using Raw TES PTVs and overlaid on RO-reviewed TES PTVs minus the observed clinical baseline values). Although the impact of TES-based planning is readily calculated, establishing a sensible threshold for the acceptable amount of dosimetric degradation below which the adoption of TES-based planning is unacceptable is challenging. For example, a plan with a whole PTV V100 below 97% would not be accepted for implant at our institution, so it may seem natural to set this as a target for TES-based planning. However, the patient might have been seen by any number of oncologists, none of whose plans are explicitly required to meet the 97% criterion on the contours of their colleagues. To avoid a double standard, the evaluation of any automatic contouring algorithm cannot ignore the implicitly accepted differences in dosimetry, which arise from the endemic variability in target definition between observers.

Ban et al (2013) note that fisheries and conservation goals in H

Ban et al. (2013) note that fisheries and conservation goals in High Sea areas can be harmonised provided that the goals and objectives of management are clearly described and they outline a “Systematic Conservation Planning” approach to improve the sustainable use of resources by all stakeholders. The structured method outlined here to identify and assess candidate EBSAs against selection criteria is, we hope, a potentially important tool to help nations effectively manage areas of significant marine biodiversity. The original 2010 workshop was supported by a Sloan Foundation grant to the IUCN and GOBI. CenSeam provided additional support for participants.

Input to that workshop is acknowledged from Edward van den Berghe (OBIS), Karen Stocks (SeamountsOnline; University of California, San Diego), and Derek Tittensor (Dalhousie University) learn more for data sets and/or advice. The 2013 workshop was funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Department of Conservation. Additional updated biodiversity (Shannon index) data were provided by OBIS (Ward Appleton) and Duke University (Jesse Cleary). Thanks to Phil Weaver (Seascape Consultants Ltd, UK) for helpful comments on the manuscript. “
“In Bangladesh and many other developing countries, poverty,

intense competition for fishery resources and ineffective Trametinib manufacturer resource management institutions increase the challenges in managing

fisheries conflicts. Destructive Amino acid fishing practices and competition between users of different classes of gear, resulting from ineffective governance and increasing population, are imposing severe stress on the coastal fisheries of Bangladesh. These factors also contribute to the increasing incidence of conflicts among fishery stakeholders (Kuperan and Jahan, 2010). Conflicts take place in fisheries when groups or individuals seek the same resource using different methods or try to utilize the same space for their activities with either party seeking dominance (Bennett et al., 2001, Charles, 1992 and FAO., 2003). Conflicts over access and control of fisheries and aquatic resources are a global phenomenon. However, they have particular importance in developing countries where a significant portion of the population depends on capture fisheries for food and livelihoods. Conflict can lead to violence, but avoiding and shunning conflict is also problematic because unresolved problems may flare up again, often with renewed vigor (Salayo et al., 2006). While a conflict resolution model (Coser, 1967 and Zartman, 1991) assumes that each dispute needs to be conclusively resolved because of its destructive potential, the conflict management approach (Daniels and Walker, 2001) views some level of conflict as inevitable.

Different levels of doxorubicin in the brain were accomplished th

Different levels of doxorubicin in the brain were accomplished through alteration of the microbubble concentration. These results are encouraging and provide an important framework for compound screening assay future studies aimed at local disruption of the BBB for delivery of macromolecular agents to the brain.

Several avenues of transcapillary passage after ultrasound sonication have been identified. These include transcytosis, passage through endothelial cell cytoplasmic openings, opening of tight junctions and free passage through injured endothelium [26]. One study investigated the integrity of the tight junctions (TJs) in rat brain microvessels after BBB disruption by ultrasound bursts (1.5-MHz) in combination with Optison

[27]. BBB disruption, as evidenced by leakage of i.v. administered horseradish peroxidase Selumetinib mouse (HRP) and lanthanum chloride, was paralleled by the apparent disintegration of the TJ complexes, the redistribution and loss of the immunosignals for occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1. At 6 and 24 h after sonication, no HRP or lanthanum leakage was observed and the barrier function of the TJs, as indicated by the localization and density of immunosignals, appeared to be completely restored. The results of these studies demonstrate that the effect of ultrasound upon TJs is very transient, lasting less than 4 h. Although much effort has been undertaken to demonstrate the safety of BBB opening with ultrasound and microbubbles, further work is needed to elucidate the molecular effects of this application. Recent data demonstrate that at the upper thresholds of acoustic pressure for safe BBB opening a reorganization of gap-junctional plaques in both neurons and astrocytes may occur [28]. This is important because gap junctions allow transfer of information between adjacent cells and are responsible for tissue homeostasis. Likewise, there is evidence that focused ultrasound-induced opening of the BBB in the

presence of ultrasound contrast agents can lead to increased ubiquitinylation of proteins in neuronal cells [29], indicating that brain molecular stress pathways are affected by this treatment. Nevertheless, this new technology for delivering drugs across the BBB will offer Methamphetamine exciting opportunities for treatment of a variety of brain diseases in the future. “
“Intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA is the only approved therapy for treating acute ischemic stroke and needs to be administered within the first 4.5 h after symptom onset [1]. Among other factors, the speed and completeness of recanalization, and successive reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue is associated with final infarct size, restoration of function, and finally clinical outcome. With i.v. rt-PA only, there is a rather low percentage of patients achieving early (30–40%) and complete (18%) recanalization [2].

Climate

anomaly assessments are especially important in t

Climate

anomaly assessments are especially important in the context of the prospective activities of oil and gas companies on the Barents and Kara Sea shelves. No less important are the ice conditions along the Northern Sea Route. The warming of 2000–2012 has already led to the refusal of ice-breaker support from companies participating in Arctic shipping. The reverse trend may bring about unfavourable consequences for all kinds of economic activity in the Russian Arctic. The authors thank the two reviewers for their constructive comments. Additionally we thank Mr. Peter Senn for editing the English of the manuscript and his valuable comments. “
“An important aspect of the research problem of slicks on a sea surface is the study of their temporal dynamics. One of the significant parameters of surface films (SF) of different origin is their characteristic dimensions. Generally accepted theoretical Trametinib supplier models discriminate the process of spot spreading into typical temporal spreading stages: one or another physical mechanism prevails at each stage. Fay (1969) identified three consecutive basic stages in the spread of an initially concentrated volume of GSK-3 inhibitor oil with constant properties,

notably, gravity-inertial (balance between gravitational force and inertial force), gravity-viscous (balance between gravitational force and frictional force), and the surface tension regime, when the surface tension force and frictional force are in balance. These three stages are all characterised by power laws governing the size of the slick as a function of time α tβ but with different coefficients α and β for each stage. Fay’s classification was a powerful incentive for the phased studying of these processes. A great many research

papers are dedicated to theoretical models and laboratory measurements of film spreading (e.g. Hoult, 1972, Foda Ureohydrolase and Cox, 1980, Camp and Berg, 1987, Dussaud and Troian, 1998, Svitova et al., 1999 and Boniewicz-Szmyt and Pogorzelski, 2008 and references therein). In particular, Hoult (1972) and Buckmaster (1973) give theoretical analyses for the spread of oil slicks on a quiescent body of water. The dependence of the film border on time, thickness and velocity distributions along a spreading film were analysed in detail by Foda & Cox (1980) and Phillips (1997) for both plane and axisymmetric slicks. Laboratory results of surface film dynamic of various pure oils and their liquid solutions (Camp & Berg 1987) are in good agreement with the model calculations presented by Foda & Cox (1980). Boniewicz-Szmyt & Pogorzelski (2008) used video-enhanced microscopy and dynamic tensiometry methods to study the spreading of different liquid hydrocarbons in laboratory conditions. According to the experimental observations of these authors, the lens expansion rates are one order of magnitude lower than those predicted by classical tension-gradient-driven spreading theory.